Cases reported "Iatrogenic Disease"

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1/986. Pericardial heart disease: a study of its causes, consequences, and morphologic features.

    This report reviews morphologic aspects of pericardial heart disease. A morphologic classification for this condition is presented. An ideal classification of pericardial heart disease obviously would take into account clinical, etiologic and morphologic features of this condition but a single classification combining these three components is lacking. Pericardial heart disease is relatively uncommon clinically, and when present at necropsy it usually had not been recognized during life. The term "pericarditis" is inaccurate because most pericardial diseases are noninflammatory in nature. Morphologically chronic pericardial heart disease may present clinically as an acute illness. Even when clinical symptoms are present, however, few patients develop evidence of cardiac dysfunction (constriction). When pericardial constriction occurs, it is the result of increased pericardial fluid or increased pericardial tissue or both. Increased fluid is treated by drainage; increased tissue is treated by excision. In most patients with chronic constrictive pericarditis the etiology is not apparent even after histologic examination of pericardia. ( info)

2/986. Alternating antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody specificity: drug-induced vasculitis in a patient with Wegener's granulomatosis.

    We describe a patient who presented with Wegener's granulomatosis associated with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) directed against proteinase 3 (PR3) with a cytoplasmic immunofluorescence pattern (cANCA), whose ANCA type changed to antimyeloperoxidase antibodies with a perinuclear immunofluorescence pattern (pANCA) when treated with propylthiouracil, and changed back to anti-PR3 antibodies with cANCA after the medication was discontinued. The patient developed flares of vasculitis symptoms associated with rises in either type of ANCA. Tests for antimyeloperoxidase ANCA were repeatedly negative before the drug was started, strongly implicating the drug as the cause of the episode. This case demonstrates that patients with idiopathic ANCA-positive vasculitis may quickly develop a superimposed drug-associated ANCA-positive vasculitis. Iatrogenic vasculitis should be suspected when a patient with idiopathic vasculitis with one type of ANCA develops the other type of ANCA. ( info)

3/986. Iatrogenic hypernatraemia after oral electrolyte solution.

    A seven-week-old infant was found to be hypernatraemic after oral administration of an electrolyte solution. It is recommended that such solutions are not used in the outpatient treatment of children. ( info)

4/986. Hyperactive rhizopathy of the vagus nerve and microvascular decompression. Case report.

    A 37-year-old woman underwent microvascular decompression of the superior vestibular nerve for disabling positional vertigo. Immediately following the operation, she noted severe and spontaneous gagging and dysphagia. Multiple magnetic resonance images were obtained but failed to demonstrate a brainstem lesion and attempts at medical management failed. Two years later she underwent exploration of the posterior fossa. At the second operation, the vertebral artery as well as the posterior inferior cerebellar artery were noted to be compressing the vagus nerve. The vessels were mobilized and held away from the nerve with Teflon felt. The patient's symptoms resolved immediately after the second operation and she has remained symptom free. The authors hypothesize that at least one artery was shifted at the time of her first operation, or immediately thereafter, which resulted in vascular compression of the vagus nerve. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of a hyperactive gagging response treated with microvascular decompression. The case also illustrates the occurrence of a possibly iatrogenic neurovascular compression syndrome. ( info)

5/986. bismuth encephalopathy.

    bismuth encephalopathy, characterized by the constant association of acute confusion, myoclonus, severe ataxia and dysarthia has reached "epidemic" proportion since its first description in 1974. The clinical aspects the pathogenic hypothesis, the diagnostic criteria as well as the report of a typical case are described by the authors, who stress the similarities with encephalopathies induced by other metals. ( info)

6/986. median nerve damage from brachial artery puncture: a case report.

    This report describes a case in which puncture of the brachial artery to obtain a sample for blood-gas analysis resulted in damage to the median nerve with a persisting neuropathy and apparent loss of function. Errors in judgment and contributions to possible negligence included (1) inappropriate choice of sampling site; (2) lack of knowledge of precautions and possible complications; (3) incomplete/inadequate description of optimal procedure in departmental procedure manual; (4) arbitrary selection of the dominant hand. ( info)

7/986. Iatrogenic left main coronary artery stenosis.

    Iatrogenic left main coronary artery stenosis is a potentially life-threatening complication of cardiac valve replacement surgery due to injury by perfusion cannulas. This requires prompt clinical recognition and diagnosis by repeat coronary angiography, and treatment by early coronary artery bypass grafting. We present 3 patients who had normal coronary arteries prior to valve replacement surgery, and who developed severe left main coronary artery stenosis after surgery. Accelerating angina and refractory ventricular arrhythmia were presenting clinical manifestations. coronary artery bypass grafting was successfully performed in all 3 patients. ( info)

8/986. Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty as alternative treatment to coronary artery bypass surgery in iatrogenic stenosis of the left main coronary artery.

    The present report describes three patients with iatrogenic left main coronary artery after aortic valve replacement. All three patients were successfully treated by percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. No clinical or angiographic signs of restenosis were seen during the long-term follow-up (4, 6, and 11 years). These patients show the feasibility of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty in iatrogenic left main coronary artery stenosis as alternative of coronary artery bypass surgery. However, it should be only considered in patients who would otherwise be deemed inoperable, refused reoperation, and are willing to take the risk involved. ( info)

9/986. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease with florid-type plaques after cadaveric dura mater grafting.

    BACKGROUND: Many reported cases of iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) developed after grafting cadaveric dura mater contaminated with CJD prions (dura-associated CJD). They are known to be clinicopathologically similar to sporadic CJD. We report herein 2 autopsy cases of dura-associated CJD with atypical clinicopathological features. patients: Two patients presented with progressive ataxia and mental deterioration 10 or 11 years after neurosurgical treatment with cadaveric dural grafting, which led to their deaths at 8 and 17 months, respectively, after onset. RESULTS: The cases were clinically atypical in exhibiting no or late occurrence of myoclonus and periodic synchronous discharges on electroencephalographic studies. They were pathologically unique in several aspects. The most striking feature was the presence of many prion protein (PrP) plaques in multiple areas in the brain. Some of them were the "florid" type surrounded by a zone of spongiform changes known to be a hallmark for the new variant CJD. The distribution of spongiform degeneration was also unique in that it was intense in the thalamus, basal ganglia, and the dentate nuclei of the cerebellum but milder in the cerebrum. There were no mutations in the PrP gene of the patients. There was no major difference in the size and glycoform pattern between the abnormal isoform of PrP extracted from the brain tissue from the dura-associated cases of CJD and that from a sporadic case of CJD. CONCLUSIONS: These 2 cases are clinicopathologically distinct from typical dura-associated cases of CJD. They may be a subtype with florid-type plaques in dura-associated CJD. ( info)

10/986. Complete avulsion of the distal posterior interosseous nerve during wrist arthroscopy: a possible cause of persistent pain after arthroscopy.

    A case of avulsion of the distal posterior interosseous nerve during wrist arthroscopy is presented. Surgeons unaware of this entity may attribute persistent middorsal wrist pain to the underlying disease rather than to iatrogenic damage to the distal posterior interosseous nerve. ( info)
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