Cases reported "Illusions"

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1/44. Musical hallucinations and palinacousis.

    So far, little attention has been paid to the similarities between musical hallucinations and palinacousis. Since the authors found a 75-year-old woman suffering from both symptoms, the similarities were investigated. As a result, musical hallucinations have all the four components of palinacousis structurally, although there are some differences in content. Thus, there exist substantial similarities. Moreover, both symptoms are often associated with seizure activity and there have been several case reports where anticonvulsants were successfully used to treat both symptoms. These findings indicate the possibility that there may exist a common pathway generating musical hallucinations and palinacousis. ( info)

2/44. Posthallucinogen-like visual illusions (palinopsia) with risperidone in a patient without previous hallucinogen exposure: possible relation to serotonin 5HT2a receptor blockade.

    BACKGROUND: Previous reports document visual illusions resembling hallucinogen persisting perception disorder (HPPD) after risperidone treatment in patients with histories of previous LSD exposure. methods: We report a case with visual disturbances resembling HPPD after each of three consecutive risperidone dose increases. RESULTS: Contrasting with previous reports, our patient lacked any history of substance abuse, particularly hallucinogen exposure. She lacked neurologic or other contributory illnesses. illusions generally remitted within 48 hours each time. Coadministration of trazodone and clonazepam may have contributed to these phenomena, although clonazepam has been used to treat this condition. She had been unusually sensitive to the side-effects of many psychotropics. CONCLUSIONS: This case is unique due to the absence of substance abuse. This and another report note heightened sensitivity to medication side-effects. Visual phenomena resembling HPPD evidently can occur with risperidone and, possibly, other atypical antipsychotics and certain antidepressants regardless of previous hallucinogen use. Several lines of evidence implicate reduced 5HT2a serotonin receptor stimulation rather than increased 5HT2c stimulation. ( info)

3/44. Doing it with mirrors: a case study of a novel approach to neurorehabilitation.

    arm amputees can experience the perception of movement of a phantom limb while looking at a mirror reflection of the moving, intact arm superimposed on the perceived phantom. Such use of a mirror to provide illusory visual feedback of movement can be useful in rehabilitation of hemiparetic patients. In this case report, we describe the successful application of "mirror therapy" to the post-stroke rehabilitation of a patient with poor functional use of an upper extremity, due mainly to somatosensory deficits. Mirror therapy facilitated employment of a motor copy strategy (bimanual movements) and later progression to "forced use" of the affected arm. The end result was increased functional use of the affected upper limb. ( info)

4/44. Axial lateropulsion as a sole manifestation of lateral medullary infarction: a clinical variant related to rostral-dorsolateral lesion.

    A 63-year-old woman presented with an isolated axial lateropulsion as a sole manifestation of lateral medullary infarction. She had no vertigo, nystagmus, dysphagia, hiccup, facial/hemisensory loss, horner syndrome, and limb ataxia. brain MRI showed a small infarct selectively involving the most dorsolateral portion of the rostral medulla. This patient illustrates that lateral medullary infarction may present as an isolated lateropulsion. The possible mechanism of an isolated lateropulsion is described. ( info)

5/44. vertigo in virtual reality with haptics: case report.

    A researcher was working with a desktop virtual environment system. The system was displaying vector fields of a cyclonic weather system, and the system incorporated a haptic display of the forces in the cyclonic field. As the subject viewed the rotating cyclone field, they would move a handle "through" the representation of the moving winds and "feel" the forces buffeting the handle as it moved. Stopping after using the system for about 10 min, the user experienced an immediate sensation of postural instability for several minutes. Several hours later, there was the onset of vertigo with head turns. This vertigo lasted several hours and was accompanied with nausea and motion illusions that exacerbated by head movements. Symptoms persisted mildly the next day and were still present the third and fourth day, but by then were only provoked by head movements. There were no accompanying symptoms or history to suggest an inner ear disorder. physical examination of inner ear and associated neurologic function was normal. No other users of this system have reported similar symptoms. This case suggests that some individuals may be susceptible to the interaction of displays with motion and movement forces and as a result experience motion illusions. Operators of such systems should be aware of this potential and minimize exposure if vertigo occurs. ( info)

6/44. Illusory movements of the paralyzed limb restore motor cortex activity.

    In humans, limb amputation or brachial plexus avulsion (BPA) often results in phantom pain sensation. Actively observing movements made by a substitute of the injured limb can reduce phantom pain, Proc. R. Soc. london B Biol. Sci. 263, 377-386). The neural basis of phantom limb sensation and its amelioration remains unclear. Here, we studied the effects of visuomotor training on motor cortex (M1) activity in three patients with BPA. Functional magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained before and after an 8-week training program during which patients learned to match voluntary "movements" of the phantom limb with prerecorded movements of a virtual hand. Before training, phantom limb movements activated the contralateral premotor cortex. After training, two subjects showed increased activity in the contralateral primary motor area. This change was paralleled by a significant reduction in phantom pain. The third subject showed no increase in motor cortex activity and no improvement in phantom pain. We suggest that successful visuomotor training restores a coherent body image in the M1 region and, as a result, directly affects the experience of phantom pain sensation. Artificial visual feedback on the movements of the phantom limb may thus "fool" the brain and reestablish the original hand/arm cortical representation. ( info)

7/44. Visuomotor performance in a patient with visual agnosia due to an early lesion.

    We tested a patient with visual agnosia who had suffered severe bilateral brain damage early in life, on a series of visuomotor tasks. The broad pattern of results confirms that S.B., like the extensively tested patient D.F., shows an impressive array of preserved skills, despite his severe perceptual problems. Also like D.F., S.B. shows certain subtle visuomotor difficulties that can be related to the idea that his partially intact occipito-parietal areas are unable to benefit from interactions with the apparently severely damaged occipito-temporal regions. Unlike D.F., however, he is able to make accurate discriminations of simple visual features, such as object width and orientation, albeit with very slow response times. We hypothesize that several factors such as the early onset of S.B.'s lesion and the long period since his brain lesion have allowed his brain to compensate to a degree what has been impossible in D.F., whose brain damage occurred in adulthood. This may include an element of 'rewiring' and self-monitoring of visuomotor processes that allow S.B. to achieve perceptual access to visual information processed in the dorsal stream: information that is normally only available for on-line visuomotor control. ( info)

8/44. Charles Bonnet syndrome and visual acuity--the involvement of dynamic or acute sensory deprivation.

    A 61-year-old patient suffered from Charles Bonnet syndrome (CBS) while his visual acuity declined, whereas CBS subsided after he became blind. These findings suggest that reduction of visual acuity (dynamic or acute impairment) has a greater impact on the onset of CBS than low visual acuity (static or chronic impairment) per se in some patients. They may also explain why patients with low visual acuity do not always suffer from CBS. Although further studies are required, the present case highlights the importance of the differentiation between lowering and low visual acuity in the etiology of CBS. ( info)

9/44. Illusory persistence of touch after right parietal damage: neural correlates of tactile awareness.

    We studied a patient who experienced 'palinaesthesia', an illusion of persistent touch following tactile stimulation on the left hand, subsequent to a right parietal meningioma affecting primary somatosensory regions in the postcentral gyrus (SI) and superior parietal gyrus (Brodmann area 7), but preserving the secondary somatosensory cortex (SII) in the upper lateral sulcus. This subjective sensation was accompanied by transient increases in objective measures of tactile threshold. The patient had mild deficits in superficial tactile perception, but showed severe left-sided extinction for offsets of tactile stimuli during bilateral stimulation, but not for onsets of stimuli. Functional MRI revealed increased neural activity during palinaesthesia selectively arising within the ipsilesional-right SI cortex, but no abnormality within left SI and bilateral SII. Right SI responded to the onset of new tactile stimuli on the left hand but not to their offset. By contrast, any tactile events on either hand modulated activity in contralateral SII regions, even undetected left-sided offsets. These data demonstrate that illusory persistence of touch following stimulation on the hand may result from sustained neural activity in a restricted region of the SI cortex outlasting the offset of the actual tactile stimuli. These findings also provide direct evidence for a critical role of SI in mediating conscious somatosensory experience on contralateral parts of the body. ( info)

10/44. hyperglycemia with occipital seizures: images and visual evoked potentials.

    PURPOSE: hyperglycemia may rarely be seen with visual seizures. observation of both visual evoked potentials (VEPs) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in visual status epilepticus (SE) has not been reported. We describe acute and follow-up VEP and MRI findings of a patient with hyperglycemia-related visual SE of occipital origin. methods: In a 59-year-old diabetic woman, complex visual hallucinations and illusions developed with < or =10 seizures per hour as an initial manifestation of nonketotic hyperglycemia. RESULTS: neurologic examination revealed ictal nystagmus to the right and continuous right hemianopsia. Ictal electroencephalography (EEG) and Tc-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) revealed an epileptogenic focus in the left occipital lobe. MRI with fluid-attenuated inversion recovery showed focal subcortical hypointensity and gyral hyperintensity. Follow-up MRI showed only minimal gyral hyperintensity at 6 months. The P100 amplitude of VEP was significantly higher at the right occipital area during SE, but slightly higher on the left after the patient had been seizure free for 6 months. CONCLUSIONS: Occipital seizures and hemianopsia can be caused by hyperglycemia and may be accompanied by special MRI and VEP findings. ( info)
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