Cases reported "incontinentia pigmenti"

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1/125. X-inactivation and marker studies in three families with incontinentia pigmenti: implications for counselling and gene localisation.

    Familial incontinentia pigmenti (IP) is an X-linked dominant disorder with an extremely variable clinical presentation. Ambiguous diagnosis can complicate genetic counselling and attempts to refine the gene location in Xq28. Marked skewing of X-inactivation patterns is a hallmark of IP and provides a means for investigating uncertain cases. We have conducted X-inactivation studies in three families where Xq28 marker studies were at odds with the original clinical assessment. The results indicate that no recombination between the disease locus and Xq28 loci has occurred and suggest that mosaicism is responsible for the discrepancy in one family. ( info)

2/125. incontinentia pigmenti (Bloch-Sulzberger syndrome): report of case.

    incontinentia pigmenti is an inherited disorder with predominantly ectodermal abnormalities. The dental effects, delayed eruption, hypodontia, and microdontia, are very similar to anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia. It is important that children with incontinentia pigmenti gain access to specialist dental care including pediatric dentistry, orthodontics, prosthodontics and oral surgery. ( info)

3/125. incontinentia pigmenti: overcoming cosmetic challenges.

    incontinentia pigmenti is a rare syndrome of genetic origin that affects the melanin production of the melanocytes in the epidermis or superficial dermis. It is an X-linked dominate disease with lethality in males. The syndrome presents with skin and dental manifestations similar to ectodermal dysplasia and congenital syphilis. However, dental alternatives for achieving esthetic reconstruction differ. This article illustrates a case of cosmetic rehabilitation of an 18-year-old woman with incontinentia pigmenti. ( info)

4/125. incontinentia pigmenti: seven cases with dental manifestations.

    incontinentia pigmenti (Bloch-Sulzberger syndrome) is an uncommon genodermatosis that usually affects female infants. The condition is characterized by four cutaneous stages and is frequently associated with dental, ocular, central nervous system and structural anomalies. A large case series of seven patients, all female, who presented to the Department of Paediatric Dentistry at the Eastman Dental Hospital over the last 16 years is reported. The dental features of these cases were typical and included missing teeth, microdontia and delayed eruption. In two of the seven cases, both maxillary canines were palatally impacted. ( info)

5/125. keratoacanthoma developing on a pigmented patch in incontinentia pigmenti.

    Cutaneous manifestations of incontinentia pigmenti (IP) have classically been described as three sequential stages: an initial vesicobullous stage, a verrucous stage and a stage of swirled pigmentation. Verrucous lesions tend to last longer than vesicobullous eruptions, often persisting until 1 year of age. However, adult patients with verrucous lesions are rare. We report a case of keratoacanthoma with marked dyskeratosis on a pigmented patch in a 20-year-old woman. This tumor, like subungual keratotic tumors of IP, might have been developed as one of the late manifestations of the disease. ( info)

6/125. A novel X-linked disorder of immune deficiency and hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia is allelic to incontinentia pigmenti and due to mutations in IKK-gamma (NEMO).

    Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED), a congenital disorder of teeth, hair, and eccrine sweat glands, is usually inherited as an X-linked recessive trait, although rarer autosomal dominant and recessive forms exist. We have studied males from four families with HED and immunodeficiency (HED-ID), in which the disorder segregates as an X-linked recessive trait. Affected males manifest dysgammaglobulinemia and, despite therapy, have significant morbidity and mortality from recurrent infections. Recently, mutations in IKK-gamma (NEMO) have been shown to cause familial incontinentia pigmenti (IP). Unlike HED-ID, IP affects females and, with few exceptions, causes male prenatal lethality. IKK-gamma is required for the activation of the transcription factor known as "nuclear factor kappa B" and plays an important role in T and B cell function. We hypothesize that "milder" mutations at this locus may cause HED-ID. In all four families, sequence analysis reveals exon 10 mutations affecting the carboxy-terminal end of the IKK-gamma protein, a domain believed to connect the IKK signalsome complex to upstream activators. The findings define a new X-linked recessive immunodeficiency syndrome, distinct from other types of HED and immunodeficiency syndromes. The data provide further evidence that the development of ectodermal appendages is mediated through a tumor necrosis factor/tumor necrosis factor receptor-like signaling pathway, with the IKK signalsome complex playing a significant role. ( info)

7/125. Disappearance of a white matter lesion in incontinentia pigmenti.

    We report a 12-month-old Japanese female with incontinentia pigmenti, in whom magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) disclosed a small transient lesion in the white matter. After birth, she developed some vesicular skin eruptions that mainly involved the lower extremities. These skin lesions increased in size and number and became hyperpigmented within 2 weeks. At 1 month of age, MRI revealed a small hypointense lesion on T(1)-weighted imaging, with water density on T(2)-weighted imaging, in the right centrum semiovale. At 4 months of age, her hyperpigmented lesions had faded, and at 7 months of age, MRI disclosed the disappearance of the previously observed abnormality. She exhibited no neurologic abnormalities. No cases have been reported concerning a transient lesion in the white matter revealed by MRI in incontinentia pigmenti. Although the pathogenesis is unknown, transient central nervous system involvement might have occurred in early infancy as did the fading skin lesions. ( info)

8/125. A pregnancy following PGD for X-linked dominant [correction of X-linked autosomal dominant] incontinentia pigmenti (Bloch-Sulzberger syndrome): case report.

    incontinentia pigmenti (Bloch-Sulzberger syndrome) is a rare multisystem, ectodermal disorder associated with dermatological, dental and ocular features, and in <10% of cases, severe neurological deficit. pedigree review suggests X-linked dominance with lethality in affected males. Presentation in female carriers is variable. Following genetic counselling, a mildly affected female carrier diagnosed in infancy with a de novo mutation was referred for preimplantation sexing, unusually selecting for male gender, with an acceptance of either normality or early miscarriage in an affected male. Following standard in-vitro fertilization and embryo biopsy, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) unambiguously identified two male and two female embryos. A single 8-cell, grade 4 male embryo was replaced. A positive pregnancy test was reported 2 weeks after embryo transfer, although ultrasonography failed to demonstrate a viable pregnancy. Post abortive fetal tissue karyotyping diagnosed a male fetus with trisomy 16. This is an unusual report of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) being used for selection of males in an X-linked autosomal dominant disorder and demonstrates the value of PGD where amniocentesis or chorion villus sampling followed by abortion is not acceptable to the patient. This case also demonstrates the importance of follow-up prenatal diagnosis. ( info)

9/125. incontinentia pigmenti: a report of ten cases.

    A multidisciplinary approach is necessary in the care of patients with incontentia pigmenti (Bloch-Sulzberger syndrome). ( info)

10/125. incontinentia pigmenti: a case associated with cardiovascular anomalies.

    Various cutaneous and developmental defects of the eyes, teeth, skeleton, and central nervous system have been detected in infants with incontinentia pigmenti. We report an isolated case of incontinentia pigmenti in a 6-month-old girl in association with tricuspid insufficiency, an abnormal shunt of the right pulmonary vein into the superior vena cava, and pulmonary hypertension. We believe that our findings will help to confirm the association of cardiovascular anomalies in IP. ( info)
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