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1/283. Four cases with chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction due to hollow visceral myopathy.

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction is a rare clinical syndrome characterized by symptoms and signs of intestinal obstruction without any organic lesion obstructing the intestine. Visceral myopathy is one of the etiological causes and full thickness intestinal biopsy is essential for reaching a diagnosis. In this article we describe 4 cases of hollow visceral myopathy; our aim is to stress the importance of full thickness biopsy. METHODOLOGY: Four cases of hollow visceral myopathy are studied herein. All the patients had recurrent abdominal pain and constipation. The onset of symptoms was early in life or in the second to third decade. A diagnosis was established in all cases by full thickness intestinal biopsy obtained during laparotomy. Associated disorders were noted in 2 cases. One patient had Axenfelt syndrome, non-descended testicles and primary hypogonadism, and another had a diagnosis of Kleinfelter syndrome. RESULTS: All of the 4 cases were diagnosed to be suffering from hollow visceral myopathy by full thickness intestinal biopsy and 2 had additional disorders as well. CONCLUSIONS: patients with chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction should be carefully evaluated as to whether there is an associated disorder and the diagnosis may be delayed unless full thickness intestinal biopsy is obtained. ( info)

2/283. Eosinophilic enterocolitis and visceral neuropathy with chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction.

    A patient is described who was found to have both eosinophilic enterocolitis and visceral neuropathy with chronic idiopathic intestinal pseudo-obstruction. The etiology and pathogenesis of this rare combined disorder of the gastrointestinal tract are discussed. Although eosinophilic enterocolitis is amenable to conservative treatment, surgery may be necessary for palliation in selected patients with pseudo-obstruction due to visceral neuropathy. ( info)

3/283. calcinosis cutis and intestinal pseudoobstruction in a patient with adult onset Still's disease associated with recurrent relapses of disordered coagulopathy.

    adult onset Still's disease (AOSD) is a systemic inflammatory disorder of unknown origin, characterized by a typical spiking fever, evanescent salmon-colored rash, polyarthralgia, and myalgia. calcinosis cutis and gastrointestinal involvement have rarely been noted in AOSD. We herein describe a 54-year-old woman who demonstrated repeated disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), and adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), associated with AOSD. The patient also revealed a remarkable degree of digital calcinosis cutis and intestinal pseudoobstruction. A connective tissue disease, such as systemic sclerosis, might have been the underlying factor in the latter two symptoms. ( info)

4/283. Myopathy, myasthenic syndrome, and epidermolysis bullosa simplex due to plectin deficiency.

    plectin, an intermediate filament linking protein, is normally associated with the sarcolemma, nuclear membrane, and intermyofibrillar network in muscle, and with hemisdesmosomes in skin. A 20-year-old female with epidermolysis bullosa simplex since birth had progressive ocular, facial, limb, and trunkal weakness and fatigability since age 9, fivefold CK elevation, a 25% decrement with myopathic motor unit potentials and increased electrical irritability on electromyography, and no anti-acetylcholine receptor (AChR) antibodies. plectin expression was absent in muscle and severe plectin deficiency was noted in skin. Morphologic studies revealed necrotic and regenerating fibers and a wide spectrum of ultrastructural abnormalities: large accumulations of heterochromatic and lobulated nuclei, rare apoptotic nuclei, numerous cytoplasmic and few intranuclear nemaline rods, disarrayed myofibrils, thick-filament loss, vacuolar change, and pathologic alterations in membranous organelles. Many endplates (EPs) had an abnormal configuration with chains of small regions over the fiber surface and a few displayed focal degeneration of the junctional folds. The EP AChR content was normal. in vitro electrophysiologic studies showed normal quantal release by nerve impulse, small miniature EP potentials, and fetal as well as adult AChR channels at the EP. Our findings support the notion that plectin is essential for the structural integrity of muscle and skin, and for normal neuromuscular transmission. ( info)

5/283. Caring for the technology dependent child--a case study.

    Children who are dependent on medical technology present unique challenges for families and health professionals who attempt to care for them at home. The medical and nursing needs of these children challenge and stretch the financial, social and emotional capacities of parents in ways that service providers do not fully understand. case management is a collaborative parent/nurse model of community nursing practice that has been implemented to meet the needs of children and families with complex special needs where the care goes across primary and secondary care settings. The aim of case management is to facilitate communication and coordination of services between the multi-disciplinary team and the family to achieve desirable goals. This case study describes the special needs of a technology dependent child and the impact of chronic illness on both child and family. From a deeper understanding of the parent's perspective, implications for nursing practice are discussed. ( info)

6/283. myasthenia gravis, thymoma, intestinal pseudo-obstruction, and neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antibody.

    intestinal pseudo-obstruction occurs rarely in patients with myasthenia gravis (MG) and thymoma. The etiology of the intestinal pseudo-obstruction remains to be elucidated, although an autoimmune mechanism is postulated. We present the first report of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR)-specific antibody in a patient with seropositive MG, malignant thymoma, and intestinal pseudo-obstruction. This finding provides evidence that intestinal pseudo-obstruction associated with thymoma and possibly other neoplasms may be related to antibodies against the neuronal nicotinic receptors at autonomic ganglia. ( info)

7/283. intestinal pseudo-obstruction and acute pandysautonomia associated with Epstein-Barr virus infection.

    We report the association of neurological and intestinal disorders with the reactivation of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in a child. This previously healthy 13-yr-old boy presented with pharyngitis and acute abdominal ileus. laparotomy excluded a mechanical obstruction. Postoperatively, he suffered from prolonged intestinal obstruction, pandysautonomia, and encephalomyelitis. Histological examination of the appendix and a rectal biopsy taken 3 months after the onset showed an absence of ganglion cells (appendix) and hypoganglionosis (rectum), with a mononucleate inflammatory infiltrate in close contact with the myenteric neural plexuses. EBV-PCR was positive in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid, and in situ hybridization with the Epstein-Barr virus encoded rna probe showed positive cells throughout the appendix wall including the myenteric area, in a mesenteric lymph node, and in the gastric biopsies. EBV spontaneous lymphocytic proliferation was noted in the blood. The serology for EBV showed previous infection but anti-early antigen antibodies were present. No immunodeficiency was found. Neurological and GI recovery occurred after 6 months of parenteral nutrition and bethanechol. The omnipresence of EBV associated with the neurointestinal symptoms suggest that the virus was the causal agent. This is the first documented case of acquired hypoganglionnosis due to EBV reactivation. ( info)

8/283. The striking effect of hyperbaric oxygenation therapy in the management of chronic idiopathic intestinal pseudo-obstruction.

    Chronic idiopathic intestinal pseudo-obstruction is one of the disorders that is most refractory to medical and surgical treatment. Even when patients are given nutritional support, including total parenteral nutrition, obstructive symptoms seldom disappear. We report a case of chronic idiopathic intestinal pseudo-obstruction, due to myopathy, in which hyperbaric oxygenation therapy was strikingly effective. The presence of myopathy was histologically confirmed on the surgically resected jejunal specimen. hyperbaric oxygenation resulted not only in relief of the patient's obstructive symptoms but also in a rapid decrease of abnormally accumulated intestinal gas. At last, he could resume oral intake without any critical adverse effects. These observations strongly suggest that hyperbaric oxygenation can be an effective therapy in the management of chronic idiopathic intestinal pseudo-obstruction. ( info)

9/283. Acute small bowel pseudo-obstruction due to AL amyloidosis: a case report and literature review.

    amyloidosis may uncommonly present with intestinal pseudo-obstruction. Previous reports have described an acute presentation with AA amyloid and a more chronic syndrome with AL amyloid. We report the case of a 78-yr-old man who presented with clinical and radiographic features of an acute small bowel obstruction and who, at laparotomy, was found to have intestinal pseudo-obstruction due to AL amyloidosis. We believe this case represents the first report of acute pseudo-obstruction from AL amyloidosis; awareness of this presentation may facilitate earlier diagnosis. ( info)

10/283. intestinal pseudo-obstruction in systemic lupus erythematosus: an uncommon but important clinical manifestation.

    OBJECTIVES: To document intestinal pseudo-obstruction (IpsO) as a recognised clinical manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and a possible new clinical entity with its apparent association with ureterohydronephrosis. METHODOLOGY: We report six lupus patients who presented with IpsO and review 12 other cases from an English literature search. IpsO is defined as the presence of clinical features suggestive of intestinal obstruction but without organic obstruction, namely absence of bowel sounds, presence of multiple fluid levels on plain abdominal x-rays and exclusion of organic obstruction by imaging or surgical procedure. Other clinical characteristics related to the underlying lupus, serological and histological findings, treatment modalities and outcomes of these patients were reviewed. RESULTS: All 18 patients fulfilled the ACR revised classification criteria for SLE. None showed any clinical features of scleroderma or overlap syndrome. The mean age of onset of IpsO was 29.0 (15-47) y. The female to male ratio was 16:2. Nine patients had IpsO as the initial presentation of their underlying lupus. Coexisting lupus involvement of other organ systems included glomerulonephritis (n=7), thrombocytopenia (n=5) and cerebral lupus (n=3). The serology data and autoantibody profile of some of the previously reported patients were incomplete. In our series, anti-Ro antibody was positive in 5/6 while anti-RNP was found in 1/6 patients only. All our patients had active lupus serology at presentation. 17/18 patients required the use of high dose systemic corticosteroid therapy while one patient responded to topical adrenocorticotrophin hormone treatment. Response was good and was observed early after commencement. azathioprine was used as maintenance therapy in 6/18 patients with good effects. An apparent association with the presence of bilateral ureterohydronephrosis was found in 12/18 patients. These patients presented with dysuria without positive bacterial culture though features of chronic interstitial cystitis were not invariably found in these patients. CONCLUSION: IpsO is an uncommon but important manifestation of SLE. The underlying pathology is not fully understood but it may be related to immune complex deposition. The finding of coexisting ureterohydronephrosis suggests that there may also be a central smooth muscle motility problem of neuropathic or myogenic pathophysiology which may or may not be secondary to vasculitis. Early recognition and treatment of IpsO in SLE is important. ( info)
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