Cases reported "Intracranial Hypertension"

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1/251. Cranio-orbital-temporal neurofibromatosis: are we treating the whole problem?

    Cranio-orbital-temporal neurofibromatosis is an uncommon subtype of neurofibromatosis 1 characterized by pulsatile exophthalmos, orbital neurofibromas, sphenoid wing dysplasia, expansion of the temporal fossa, and herniation of the temporal lobe into the orbit. The cause of the sphenoid wing dysplasia is uncertain. Reconstruction of the sphenoid defect, separating the orbit and cranial vault, has been problematic because of resorption of bone grafts. This reports illustrates one potential cause of the sphenoid defect and a possible cause of the bone graft resorption. ( info)

2/251. anesthesia for cesarean section in two patients with brain tumours.

    PURPOSE: To describe two patients with brain tumours where general anesthesia was used for cesarean sections under emergency and urgent conditions. CLINICAL FEATURES (CASE #1): The first patient presented at 38 wk gestation with an acute intracranial tumour herniation, requiring emergency craniotomy and simultaneous cesarean section. General anesthesia was induced with thiopental and vecuronium, maintained with enflurane 1% in O2 100%. Maternal P(ET)CO2 was maintained at 25 mmHg. After delivering a healthy infant, she was given syntocinon, mannitol and dexamethasone i.v. anesthesia was maintained with fentanyl, nitrous oxide 50% in O2 and isoflurane 1% during frontal-lobe tumour resection. CLINICAL FEATURES (CASE #2): The second patient presented at 37 wk gestation for urgent cesarean section because of placental insufficiency. She had had a brain tumour resection four years earlier. An increase in intracranial pressure necessitated craniotomy for decompression at 20 wk gestation. She was further treated with dexamethasone, carbamazepine and radiation for control of cerebral oedema at 34 wk. cesarean section was performed under general anesthesia; rapid-sequence-induction with thiopental and succinylcholine, followed by isoflurane 1% in O2 100%. Syntocinon, fentanyl and atracurium i.v. were administered after delivery of a healthy infant. Although neurosurgeons stood by, their intervention was unnecessary. CONCLUSION: General anesthesia remains safe and dependable for operative delivery in parturients with intracranial tumour. Tracheal intubation allows maternal hyperventilation thereby controlling raised intracranial pressure. Hemodynamic stability is readily achieved to maintain cerebral perfusion. However, a multidisciplinary-team approach is critical for successful patient management. ( info)

3/251. superior sagittal sinus obstruction and tuberculous abscess.

    Intracranial tumours such as meningiomas may occasionally produce raised intracranial pressure by occluding a venous sinus. More uncommonly, midline tumours in the occipital regions of the skull can produce elevated intracranial pressure by non-thrombotic compression of the superior sagittal sinus. We present a case of raised intracranial pressure secondary to non-thrombotic obstruction of the superior sagittal sinus by a midline tuberculous abscess. ( info)

4/251. brain metastasis as first manifestation of ovarian cancer.

    brain metastasis from ovarian cancer, a rare and highly dismal event, develops mostly during or after postoperative chemotherapy. This report documents the clinical findings and magnetic resonance imaging of an uncommon case who presented signs of increased intracranial pressure as a first manifestation. Histologic examination of removed brain lesion demonstrated ovarian origin, while no evidence of a locally invasive lesion was found at exploratory laparotomy ('tentative' surgical stage Ia). The possibility of ovarian origin should be always considered in a woman with brain involvement. ( info)

5/251. Endovascular recanalization with balloon angioplasty and stenting of an occluded occipital sinus for treatment of intracranial venous hypertension: technical case report.

    OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: Dural sinus thrombosis can lead to intracranial venous hypertension and can be complicated by intracranial hemorrhage. We present a case report of a patient who underwent endovascular recanalization and stenting of a thrombosed occipital sinus. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 13-year-old patient with a history of chronic sinus thrombosis refractory to anticoagulant therapy presented with acute onset of aphasia and hemiparesis. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed hydrocephalus and cerebral edema. Angiography delineated multiple dural arteriovenous fistulae and persistent occlusion of the posterior sagittal, occipital, and bilateral transverse dural sinuses with retrograde cortical venous drainage. INTERVENTION: After embolization of the dural arteriovenous fistulae, a transvenous approach was used to recanalize and perform balloon angioplasty of the right internal jugular vein and the occipital and left transverse sinuses, resulting in subsequent clinical improvement. The patient's condition deteriorated 3 days later with reocclusion of both balloon-dilated sinuses. Repeat angioplasty and then deployment of an endovascular stent in the occipital sinus were performed, and reestablishment of venous outflow was achieved, resulting in a decrease of intracranial venous pressure from 41 to 14 mm Hg and neurological improvement. At the 3-month follow-up examination, the stented occipital sinus remained patent and served as the only conduit for extracranial venous outflow; the patient remained neurologically intact at the 12-month follow-up examination. CONCLUSION: This is the first report of mechanical recanalization, balloon angioplasty, and stent deployment in the occipital sinus to provide sustained venous outflow for the treatment of venous hypertension with retrograde cortical venous drainage in a patient with dural pansinus thrombosis refractory to anticoagulant therapy. ( info)

6/251. Diffuse calvarial meningioma. Case report and review of the literature.

    An extremely unusual calvarial meningioma in a 77-year-old woman is reported. The meningioma spread widely and symmetrically within the calvaria and grew extracranially within the scalp as well as intracranially. Reactive dural hyperplasia induced narrowing of the intracranial space and occlusion of the superior sagittal sinus, resulting in intracranial hypertension. After external decompression, the patient's symptoms markedly resolved. The authors review the literature on calvarial meningioma, discuss its pathogenesis, and propose mechanisms responsible for the patient's intracranial hypertension. ( info)

7/251. Imaging features of intraventricular melanoma.

    We present the MR imaging findings in a patient with symptoms of increased intracranial pressure and a mass in the left lateral ventricle. The mass showed increased signal intensity on T1-weighted images and low signal intensity on T2-weighted images. The histologic diagnosis was that of melanoma, and detailed physical and funduscopic examinations disclosed no evidence of a primary lesion. We believe that the mass was a primary intraventricular melanoma, possibly arising from the choroid plexus, and we discuss the mechanisms that may be responsible for its occurrence in this location. ( info)

8/251. A case of neurocysticercosis-differential diagnostic aspects.

    neurocysticercosis is no medical rarity but in non-endemic countries especially, a high degree of physician awareness is necessary for diagnosis. The case of a German female patient who had focal seizures for the first time at the age of 23 caused by a cerebral cyst of cysticercus cellulosae is presented. Only surgical removal and subsequent histological examination allowed diagnosis while diagnostic investigation yielded no pathological findings. ( info)

9/251. Acquired dural fistulae in benign intracranial hypertension: a short case report.

    Venous sinus thrombosis has been regarded as a known cause of intracranial hypertension. We report a case of long-standing raised intracranial hypertension (ICT) that presented with deteriorating vision in both eyes. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the brain and cerebral angiography showed blockage of superior saggital sinus and sigmoid sinuses with bilateral dural arteriovenous fistulae (DAVF) formation. ( info)

10/251. Falcotentorial plasmacytoma. Case report.

    Intracranial solitary plasmacytomas are extremely rare tumors and are often misdiagnosed preoperatively. The authors report the successful treatment of a patient who harbored such a tumor involving both the falx and tentorium; this is the second case reported. A 59-year-old woman suffered from a seizure disorder due to a falcotentorial lesion, which had been identified 3 years earlier and was thought at the time to be an en plaque meningioma. Most recently, the patient presented with symptoms of increased intracranial pressure and hemiparesis. Computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of her head revealed progressive growth of the tumor. The patient underwent partial resection of the tumor and chemo- and radiation therapies. Intracranial plasmacytomas must always be included in a differential diagnosis because potential complete cure can be achieved using fairly conservative treatment modalities. ( info)
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