Cases reported "Intracranial Hypotension"

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1/131. Pachymeningeal gadolinium enhancement of the lumbar region secondary to neuraxis hypotension.

    STUDY DESIGN: A case of diffuse pachymeningeal gadolinium enhancement of the lumbar region secondary to neuraxis hypotension is presented. OBJECTIVE: To report a case of diffuse pachymeningeal gadolinium enhancement of the lumbar region and to show the importance of considering neuraxis hypotension in the differential diagnosis of this type of enhancement so as to avoid excessive invasive and noninvasive diagnostic testing. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Diffuse pachymeningeal gadolinium enhancement of the lumbar region secondary to neuraxis hypotension has not been reported previously. methods: A case of diffuse pachymeningeal gadolinium enhancement of the lumbar region is presented in the context of clinical signs and symptoms replete with a history of cerebrospinal fluid diversion that strongly suggest neuraxis hypotension. RESULTS: The patient's clinical presentation and history of shunting implicated neuraxis hypotension as a cause of the diffuse dural enhancement. CONCLUSION: Proper attribution of the dural gadolinium enhancement to neuraxis hypotension helped avoid a dural biopsy with its potential attendant morbidity. It is important to consider neuraxis hypotension in the differential diagnosis of diffuse pachymeningeal enhancement occurring anywhere in the central neuraxis to avoid unnecessary diagnostic testing with its attendant morbidity and cost. ( info)

2/131. Transient oculomotor cranial nerves palsy in spontaneous intracranial hypotension.

    Transient sixth cranial nerves palsy may occur in rare cases after lumbar puncture, spinal anesthesia and myelography as well as in more rare cases of spontaneous intracranial hypotension. We report three cases of spontaneous intracranial hypotension with sixth cranial nerves palsy. One of these patients presented also third cranial nerve palsy, never reported in spontaneous intracranial hypotension. ( info)

3/131. The syndrome of spontaneous intracranial hypotension.

    The authors report four cases of headache and other symptomatology related to the syndrome of intracranial hypotension. They were seen in a routine clinical practice over the past 3 years. The clinical features, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, and follow-up of these patients are described. review of the prior literature on the topic is also included. All four patients presented with orthostatic headache syndrome. Three of the four demonstrated diffuse leptomeningeal thickening and enhancement on MRI studies. One subsequently developed a subdural effusion. One patient demonstrated downward displacement of the posterior fossa initially, which resolved on follow-up MRI scanning. Possible pathophysiologies of the syndrome are discussed. ( info)

4/131. Spontaneous intracranial hypotension.

    PURPOSE: To describe a patient with classic presentation of spontaneous intracranial hypotension and subsequent improvement with targeted epidural blood patch. methods: Report of one case and review of the literature. RESULTS: Examination of cerebrospinal fluid after lumbar puncture disclosed a reduced opening pressure, an increased level of protein, and lymphocytic pleocytosis. magnetic resonance imaging of the brain with gadolinium showed diffuse enhancement of the pachymeninges, no evidence of leptomeningeal enhancement, and chronic subdural fluid collection. Radionuclide cisternography demonstrated reduced activity over the cerebral convexities, early accumulation of radiotracer in the urinary bladder, and direct evidence of leakage at the cervicothoracic junction (C7-T1). Clinical, laboratory, and radiologic features were consistent with the diagnosis of spontaneous intracranial hypotension. Therapy with a targeted epidural blood patch resulted in the rapid resolution of symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: In this report, we describe a classic case of spontaneous intracranial hypotension in a 63-year-old man with an initial presentation of postural headaches, blurred vision, pain in the left eye, diplopia on left gaze, and neck soreness. ( info)

5/131. Pseudo Chiari type I malformation secondary to cerebrospinal fluid leakage.

    cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage may occur spontaneously, iatrogenically or from spinal trauma. Postural headache is the cardinal symptom; dizziness, diminished hearing, nausea and vomiting are additional symptoms. In neurological examinations cranial nerve palsies may be found. Due to low CSF pressure neuroimaging studies may reveal dural enhancement and vertical displacement of the brain. We describe a patient with the history of an uncomplicated lumbar discectomy at the level L4-5 and the typical clinical symptoms of intracranial hypotension. MRI of the craniocervical junction showed typical features of a Chiari type-I malformation. After neurosurgical ligation of a CSF leak at L4-5 caused by lumbar disc surgery, the patient was free of orthostatic headache. A repeated MRI showed a striking reduction of the previous downward displacement of the cerebellar tonsils and pons. ( info)

6/131. Low-pressure shunt 'malfunction' following lumbar puncture in children with shunted obstructive hydrocephalus.

    Most shunt malfunctions present with signs and symptoms of high intracranial pressure, and computed tomography scans demonstrate ventricular enlargement. However, several authors have described a rare 'low-pressure' hydrocephalic state in which ventricular enlargement can occur in the face of low, or even negative, intracranial pressures. We report 2 children with obstructive hydrocephalus in whom this 'low-pressure state' followed a lumbar puncture; in both children, the shunts were functioning properly despite increased ventricular size on computed tomography scans, and all symptoms resolved (and the ventricles returned to baseline) following a period of enforced recumbency without shunt revision. We hypothesize that subarachnoid cerebrospinal fluid leakage through the puncture site in the lumbar theca decreases the intracranial pressures globally to a point below the opening pressures of the shunt valves. The ventricular cerebrospinal fluid, unable to be drained through either the subarachnoid space or the shunt, accumulates within the ventricular system under low pressure. One consistent feature in our 2 patients has been the postural nature of the headaches. We recommend enforced recumbency and, if necessary, a blood patch to seal the lumbar leakage. Shunt revision or prolonged external ventricular drainage appears to be unnecessary in these patients. Finally, neurosurgeons should be aware of this potential complication. ( info)

7/131. MRI findings in lumbar puncture headache syndrome: abnormal dural-meningeal and dural venous sinus enhancement.

    intracranial hypotension (IH) is a treatable cause of persistent headaches. Persistent cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak at a lumbar puncture (LP) site may cause IH. We present postcontrast MRI of a patient with post-lumbar-puncture headache (LPHA) showing abnormal, intense, diffuse, symmetric, contiguous dural-meningeal (pachymeningeal) enhancement of the supratentorial and infratentorial intracranial dura, including convexities, interhemispheric fissure, tentorium, and falx. MRI also showed abnormal dural venous sinus enhancement, a new finding in LPHA, suggesting compensatory venous expansion. Thus, IH and venodilatation may play a role in the development of LPHA. ( info)

8/131. New-onset headache in an adolescent with MASS syndrome.

    A 15-year-old girl with the "MASS" phenotype (meeting several of the minor criteria for marfan syndrome) presents with a new onset low-pressure postural headache. Clinical features and magnetic resonance imaging suggested intracranial hypotension, which was confirmed with lumbar puncture. The pathophysiology and treatment of spontaneous intracranial hypotension are discussed. ( info)

9/131. Syndrome of overdrainage associated with disconnection of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt.

    We present the case of a child who developed the syndrome of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) overdrainage with slit-like ventricles on CT in the setting of a disconnected distal shunt valve. Upgrading the shunt alleviated his symptoms. It is suggested that the presence of a patent fibrous tract allowed the overdrainage of CSF. ( info)

10/131. Giant cervical epidural veins after lumbar puncture in a case of intracranial hypotension.

    A 29-year-old woman presented with dilated epidural veins and incapacitating headache after undergoing a lumbar puncture. Two months later, the results of follow-up MR imaging were normal. These findings suggest that temporary dilation of the epidural vein may occur in association with post-lumbar puncture intracranial hypotension syndrome. In these cases, it seems useful to confirm whether the patient has recently undergone a lumbar puncture. ( info)
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