Cases reported "Kidney Diseases"

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1/2426. Glomerular thrombosis: an unusual cause of renal failure in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    The authors report an unusual case of acute renal failure occurring in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus and antiphospholipid antibodies. kidney biopsy revealed glomerular thrombosis, in the absence of glomerulonephritis. The authors stress the clinical and biological signs that suggest the thrombotic nature of kidney failure in lupus patients. ( info)

2/2426. Bilateral renal masses after local bacillus Calmette-Guerin therapy for postcystectomy ureteral cancer.

    bacillus Calmette-Guerin was administered through the ileal conduit of a 63-year-old man with upper tract recurrence of transitional cell carcinoma. Subsequent computed tomography showed bilateral renal masses, which were granulomatous at pathologic examination. The bacilli likely reached the kidneys via proven ileoureteral reflux. patients with reflux may benefit from antituberculous prophylaxis. ( info)

3/2426. Renal phlebography: an aid in the diagnosis of the absent or non-functioning kidney.

    There are clinical situations that may preclude the use of retrograde pyelography and renal arteriography in the differential diagnosis of the absent, dysgenetic and non-functioning kidney. At times these procedures are non-diagnostic. We present 8 cases to demonstrate the efficacy of selective renal phlebography as an aid in the diagnosis of these entities. ( info)

4/2426. fibrinogen A alpha chain mutation (Arg554 Leu) associated with hereditary renal amyloidosis in a French family.

    A French family with hereditary renal amyloidosis (HRA) was studied. The disease presented in 7 of the 8 affected individuals with proteinuria or the nephrotic syndrome. The age of onset was in the fifth decade of life. There is currently no sign of extrarenal involvement in any affected individual. However, the nephropathy in this family is progressive and led to terminal renal failure in 4 patients. immunohistochemistry studies of glomerular amyloid deposits suggested that the amyloid protein was the fibrinogen A alpha chain. Direct dna sequencing revealed a G 4993 T transversion and subsequently Arg 554 Leu mutation in the fibrinogen A alpha chain. This is the first description of this fibrinogen A alpha chain mutation in europe. This family is of French descent and cannot be related to the previously reported Peruvian/Mexican and African-American kindreds. ( info)

5/2426. Tumor-related osteomalacia followed after treatment by hyperparathyroidism.

    Tumor-induced osteomalacia is due to renal phosphate wasting in response to a humoral factor produced by a tumor, usually a benign mesenchymal tumor. Removal of the tumor is followed by resolution of the metabolic disorder. physicians should be aware that sporadic renal phosphate wasting in an adult should prompt a search for a tumor. A case of tumor-induced osteomalacia due to a nonossifying fibroma of the radius is reported. After removal of the tumor, renal phosphate excretion returned to normal, but the patient developed tertiary hyperparathyroidism. Eight years elapsed between symptom onset and the diagnosis of the tumor. The pathogenesis of tumor-induced osteomalacia and the role of treatment for renal phosphate wasting on the subsequent development of hyperthyroidism are discussed. ( info)

6/2426. Renal granulomatous sarcoidosis in childhood: a report of 11 cases and a review of the literature.

    We analysed retrospectively 11 children with renal granulomatous sarcoidosis confirmed by renal histology in order to describe the course and prognosis of the disease. Symptomatic sarcoidosis was diagnosed at a mean age of 10.1 years. Nine children had renal involvement at the time of diagnosis. In the course of the disease, nine patients developed renal failure and mild proteinuria, seven had transient sterile leukocyturia, four showed microscopic haematuria, seven had a urinary concentrating defect, and enlarged kidneys were seen in three patients. One child had hypercalcaemia and hypercalciuria, none had hypertension. light microscopy of the kidney showed interstitial infiltration by mononuclear cells in all children, interstitial fibrosis in nine patients, epithelioid granulomas in seven, tubular involvement in eight, and mild glomerular involvement in seven patients. Renal immunofluorescence was negative. Ten children received prednisone for 1-11 years. After a mean follow up of 5.5 years, three patients had entered end-stage renal failure and one had chronic insufficiency after interruption of medical supervision and prednisone therapy. CONCLUSION: Renal failure, proteinuria, leukocyturia, haematuria, and concentration defect are the prominent features of renal granulomatous sarcoidosis in children. Steroid therapy, adjusted according to disease activity, may prevent end-stage renal failure. ( info)

7/2426. Lymphocyte transformation test for the evaluation of adverse effects of antituberculous drugs.

    The usefulness of the lymphocyte transformation test (LTT) for the analysis of adverse reactions to antituberculous drugs was evaluated. - The LTT was performed with isoniazid and rifampicin in 15 tuberculosis and 2 MOTT (Mycobacteria other than tuberculosis)-infection patients who suffered drug reactions, in 23 patients without any adverse reactions, in 7 controls previously exposed to antituberculous drugs, and in 14 controls who had never been exposed. 4/15 of the hepatotoxic reactions only showed a positive LTT with rifampicin, 3/15 only with isoniazid, and in 8/15 the LTT was negative. In an anaphylactoid shock reaction the LTT was extremely exaggerated for both rifampicin and isoniazid. In patients without any side effects only one slightly increased LTT due to isoniazid was observed. Two healthy controls with previous contact to these drugs showed a positive LTT for isoniazid, one of those with both rifampicin and isoniazid. The LTT was negative in all control persons without any former contact to antituberculous medications. In most cases hepatotoxicity seems to be a pure toxic reaction without the participation of cellular immune mechanisms. LTT can be useful for identifying the drug responsible for immunological side effects. ( info)

8/2426. Renal failure resulting from infiltration by inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor responsive to corticosteroid therapy.

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is a rare disease of inflammatory and spindle cell proliferative lesions in multiple sites. Most frequently reported in the lungs, a variety of extrapulmonary sites have been described. We report the first case of IMT causing renal failure by massive bilateral renal infiltration. Renal function continued to deteriorate (peak serum creatinine level, 8.4 mg/dL) despite placement of a ureteral stent. The kidneys were diffusely enlarged on computed tomographic (CT) scan. Renal biopsy showed myofibroblastic proliferation and inflammatory infiltration. Renal failure responded favorably over weeks to corticosteroid therapy (serum creatinine level, 2.8 mg/dL) with a marked reduction in bilateral renal enlargement by CT scan. ( info)

9/2426. Remission of the nephrotic syndrome in a patient with renal amyloidosis due to rheumatoid arthritis treated with prednisolone and methotrexate.

    A 46-year-old woman developed nephrotic syndrome secondary to rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A renal biopsy showed deposition of amyloid fibrils in the subendothelial space of the glomerular capillary walls. After treatment with prednisolone (PSL, 40 mg/day), the levels of c-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid A decreased to within normal limits for 2 weeks. However, the nephrotic syndrome persisted for 6 months after the therapy. To maintain the suppression of disease activity and to reduce PSL, methotrexate (5 mg/week) was added. The nephrotic syndrome resolved gradually, and the level of serum albumin returned to normal. Although renal prognosis of patients with nephrotic syndrome due to amyloidosis caused by RA has been considered poor, adequate and long-term treatment of RA with antiinflammatory drugs, including PSL and methotrexate, is useful for patients with secondary amyloidosis complicated by RA. ( info)

10/2426. The use of fluconazole as a local irrigant for nephrostomy tubes.

    OBJECTIVES: Few data exist concerning the combined use of fluconazole systemically and as an irrigant for nephrostomy tubes in a patient with renal candidiasis. The patient described here presented with renal fungal balls obstructing the drainage of urine from her nephrostomy tubes. methods: Twelve months after chemoradiation for a stage IIB squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix, a 35-year-old woman presented with renal obstruction necessitating insertion of ureteral stents. After 6 months of chemotherapy, the patient developed uremia. After nephrostomy tubes were placed, renal candidiasis was noted, and fluconazole was begun systemically. When the renal candidiasis failed to clear, nephrostomy tube irrigations were begun. RESULTS: Fourteen days of therapy with fluconazole resulted in the resolution of the uremia. The patient died 6 months later with her nephrostomy tubes in situ and without evidence of candidiasis in her urinary tract. CONCLUSIONS: The patient described was successfully treated without having to remove her nephrostomy tubes. Two other authors have reported the successful use of fluconazole irrigation to treat candidiasis in nephrostomy tubes that was unresponsive to systemic fluconazole. Before the appearance of these reports, the best results were obtained with removal of the catheter in renal candidiasis. ( info)
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