Cases reported "Kidney Failure, Chronic"

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1/3315. Emergence of vancomycin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. Glycopeptide-Intermediate Staphylococcus aureus Working Group.

    BACKGROUND: Since the emergence of methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus, the glycopeptide vancomycin has been the only uniformly effective treatment for staphylococcal infections. In 1997, two infections due to S. aureus with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin were identified in the united states. methods: We investigated the two patients with infections due to S. aureus with intermediate resistance to glycopeptides, as defined by a minimal inhibitory concentration of vancomycin of 8 to 16 microg per milliliter. To assess the carriage and transmission of these strains of S. aureus, we cultured samples from the patients and their contacts and evaluated the isolates. RESULTS: The first patient was a 59-year-old man in michigan with diabetes mellitus and chronic renal failure. peritonitis due to S. aureus with intermediate resistance to glycopeptides developed after 18 weeks of vancomycin treatment for recurrent methicillin-resistant S. aureus peritonitis associated with dialysis. The removal of the peritoneal catheter plus treatment with rifampin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole eradicated the infection. The second patient was a 66-year-old man with diabetes in new jersey. A bloodstream infection due to S. aureus with intermediate resistance to glycopeptides developed after 18 weeks of vancomycin treatment for recurrent methicillin-resistant S. aureus bacteremia. This infection was eradicated with vancomycin, gentamicin, and rifampin. Both patients died. The glycopeptide-intermediate S. aureus isolates differed by two bands on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. On electron microscopy, the isolates from the infected patients had thicker extracellular matrixes than control methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolates. No carriage was documented among 177 contacts of the two patients. CONCLUSIONS: The emergence of S. aureus with intermediate resistance to glycopeptides emphasizes the importance of the prudent use of antibiotics, the laboratory capacity to identify resistant strains, and the use of infection-control precautions to prevent transmission. ( info)

2/3315. Expression of aquaporin-1 in a long-term peritoneal dialysis patient with impaired transcellular water transport.

    Aquaporin-1 (AQP1) has been claimed to be the molecular counterpart of the transcellular pathway for free-water movement across the peritoneum during peritoneal dialysis. We report the case of a 67-year-old man, on peritoneal dialysis for 11 years, in whom ultrafiltration failure due to an abolition of the transcellular water transfer (documented by a loss of sodium sieving) was associated with an apparently normal expression of AQP1. We suggest that an alteration of AQP1 structure, rather than of its expression, accounts for this observation. ( info)

3/3315. Acute torsion of the renal transplant after combined kidney-pancreas transplant.

    BACKGROUND: Surgical complications after combined kidney and pancreas transplantation are a major source of morbidity and mortality. Complications related to the pancreas occur with greater frequency as compared to renal complications. The occurrence in our practice of two cases of renal infarction resulting from torsion about the vascular pedicle led to our retrospective review of similar vascular complications after combined kidney and pancreas transplantation. methods: charts were reviewed retrospectively, and two patients were identified who experienced torsion about the vascular pedicle of an intra-abdominally placed renal allograft. RESULTS: Two patients who had received combined intraperitoneal kidney and pancreas transplantation presented at 16 and 11 months after transplant, respectively, with abdominal pain and decreased urine output. One patient had radiological documentation of abnormal rotation before the graft loss; unfortunately, the significance of this finding was missed. diagnosis was made in both patients at laparotomy, where the kidneys were infarcted secondary to torsion of the vascular pedicle. Both patients underwent transplant nephrectomy and subsequently received a successful second cadaveric renal transplant. CONCLUSIONS: The mechanism of this complication is a result of the intra-abdominal placement of the kidney, length of the vascular pedicle, excess ureteral length, and paucity of adhesions secondary to steroid administration. These factors contribute to abnormal mobility of the kidney. Technical modifications such as minimizing excess ureteral length and nephropexy may help to avoid this complication. ( info)

4/3315. bone marrow examinations as final clue to diagnosis of hypercalcemia: report of two cases.

    Two young men with severe hypercalcemia in association with renal failure (one acute and one chronic) are reported in whom usual diagnostic tests failed to reveal an etiology, and the final diagnoses were given by bone marrow examinations. Early bone marrow examinations in specific patients with hypercalcemia of undetermined origin sometimes are vital as shown by our two patients. ( info)

5/3315. Renal granulomatous sarcoidosis in childhood: a report of 11 cases and a review of the literature.

    We analysed retrospectively 11 children with renal granulomatous sarcoidosis confirmed by renal histology in order to describe the course and prognosis of the disease. Symptomatic sarcoidosis was diagnosed at a mean age of 10.1 years. Nine children had renal involvement at the time of diagnosis. In the course of the disease, nine patients developed renal failure and mild proteinuria, seven had transient sterile leukocyturia, four showed microscopic haematuria, seven had a urinary concentrating defect, and enlarged kidneys were seen in three patients. One child had hypercalcaemia and hypercalciuria, none had hypertension. light microscopy of the kidney showed interstitial infiltration by mononuclear cells in all children, interstitial fibrosis in nine patients, epithelioid granulomas in seven, tubular involvement in eight, and mild glomerular involvement in seven patients. Renal immunofluorescence was negative. Ten children received prednisone for 1-11 years. After a mean follow up of 5.5 years, three patients had entered end-stage renal failure and one had chronic insufficiency after interruption of medical supervision and prednisone therapy. CONCLUSION: Renal failure, proteinuria, leukocyturia, haematuria, and concentration defect are the prominent features of renal granulomatous sarcoidosis in children. Steroid therapy, adjusted according to disease activity, may prevent end-stage renal failure. ( info)

6/3315. A case of pancytopenia secondary to low-dose pulse methotrexate therapy in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis and renal insufficiency.

    Most reports on serious MTX toxicity have focused on hepatic abnormalities, while other effects, including hematologic reactions, have not been emphasized. We experienced a case of pancytopenia secondary to MTX therapy in a patient with RA and renal insufficiency. A 67-year-old woman with a 12-year history of active seropositive RA that was a response to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, hydroxychloroquinine and intra-articular steroid injections, had been followed up and was diagnosed as early chronic renal failure in October, 1993. Recently, because of significant morning stiffness and polyarthralgia, the decision was made to institute MTX treatment. This was begun as a single oral dose of 5mg/week. After 2 doses, the patient was admitted to the hospital with general weakness. Laboratory tests showed a hemoglobin level of 7.9 g/dl, WBC count 1800/mm3 and platelet count of 64000/mm3. The serum creatinine level was 6.1 mEq/dl and the BUN level was 82 mEq/dl. liver function test results were normal, but the serum albumin level was 2.7 g/dl. The patient subsequently developed fever and blood transfusions, granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) and intravenous prophylactic antibiotic therapy were required. Her condition was improved. In summary, Low-dose MTX-related adverse hematologic side effects, including fatal pancytopenia, are rare but are a cause of increasing concern in patients with RA and renal insufficiency. Close monitoring of associated risk factors, particularly impaired renal function, should be mandatory for all patients who are receiving MTX therapy. ( info)

7/3315. linear iga bullous dermatosis in a patient with chronic renal failure: response to intravenous immunoglobulin therapy.

    linear iga bullous dermatosis is a blistering disease with a heterogeneous clinical manifestation, characterized by deposition of IgA along the basement membrane zone of perilesional skin on direct immunofluorescence. We describe a patient with chronic renal failure who experienced linear iga bullous dermatosis. Long-term administration of intravenous immunoglobulin therapy was associated with clinical remission lasting more than 12 months. ( info)

8/3315. cyclosporine disposition and long-term renal function in a 500-pound kidney transplant recipient.

    Patient size has been suggested as a risk factor in kidney transplantation. We have followed a recipient of a cadaver kidney who became massively obese (232 kg, 511 lbs) 5 years posttransplantation. He has maintained stable renal function with no rejection episodes and at 5 years has a measured serum creatinine of 2.2 mg/dL, creatinine clearance 42 mL/min, and urinary protein excretion of 320 mg/24h. Both oral and intravenous cyclosporine (Sandimmune) pharmacokinetic studies were done on a steady-state dose of 150 mg, which represents 0.65 mg/kg per dose. The patient exhibited very high bioavailability, F = 95%, and an oral elimination T1/2 of over 21 hours. These data confirm that stable cyclosporine delivery in very obese recipients can be sustained by dosing normalized to the ideal body weight and trough level monitoring. ( info)

9/3315. renal artery rupture secondary to pretransplantation Candida contamination of the graft in two different recipients.

    Infected graft transplantation is an unwelcome complication that may lead to serious consequences in the immunosuppressed host. It can be caused by infection of the donor or by contamination of the organ during harvest, preservation and handling, or at transplantation. With current donor evaluation protocols, the risk of transmitting infections by exogenous contaminated grafts seems to be more frequent than true donor-transmitted infections. Nevertheless, although rare and usually free of clinically significant sequelae, if contamination is by some virulent organisms such as Staphylococcus aureus, gram-negative bacilli, or fungi, severe complications may occur. We report the clinical outcome of liver, heart, and kidney recipients from a single donor. Both renal allografts had to be removed because of renal artery rupture secondary to candida albicans infection. Careful donor evaluation before transplantation, unusually early presentation of mycosis leading to anastomotic renal artery disruption, the histopathologic findings of the grafts, and the absence of Candida infection in the liver and heart recipients make us believe that exogenous contamination of the grafts occurred during donor procedure, kidney processing, or at transplantation. In summary, because infected grafts can lead to serious complications, besides careful donor screening, it is important to achieve early recognition of contaminated organs by culturing the perfusate to start specific antibiotic or antifungal therapy after transplantation if necessary and avoid the rare but, in this case, fatal consequences of these infections. ( info)

10/3315. peritoneal dialysis-associated peritonitis caused by Propionibacteria species.

    There are an increasing number of reports about unusual causes of peritonitis in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. The Propionibacteria species is a microorganism that is a normal skin flora. Under the presence of certain risk factors, it may produce serious infections. patients at risk of having Propionibacteria sp infections have malignancy, diabetes mellitus, foreign bodies, or immunodeficiency. We describe a PD-associated peritonitis in a 51-year-old woman that was caused by Propionibacteria sp. This patient's risk factors for developing Propionibacteria sp peritonitis include a history of crest syndrome, malignancy of the breast, and recent catheter surgery. To our knowledge, this is the first case of a PD-associated peritonitis caused by Propionibacteria sp reported in the literature. ( info)
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