Cases reported "Korsakoff Syndrome"

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1/20. Status-like recurrent pilomotor seizures: case report and review of the literature.

    A diabetic 66 year old man who presented with pilomotor seizures in his right hemibody is described. The seizures recurred with an increasing frequency, leading to a status-like condition associated with Korsakoff's syndrome. An EEG was performed and several electroclinical seizures were recorded. brain MRI was negative. The patient, who was treated with carbamazepine, became seizure free after 1 week. memory and behaviour gradually returned to normal within 3 weeks. There was no further neurological episode during an 8 year follow up. Hyperosmolar, non-ketotic hyperglycaemia was considered to be the cause of the seizures. The pathophysiology of pilomotor seizures is discussed and the literature on the subject reviewed. ( info)

2/20. Wernicke-korsakoff encephalopathy and polyneuropathy after gastroplasty for morbid obesity: report of a case.

    BACKGROUND: Gastric partitioning is a surgical procedure for the treatment of morbid obesity that may engender neurological complications, such as wernicke encephalopathy and polyneuropathy. SETTING: A specialist hospital. PATIENT: A 36-year-old woman developed Wernicke-Korsakoff encephalopathy and polyneuropathy 3 months after gastroplasty for morbid obesity. A magnetic resonance scan documented the diagnosis, and a clear improvement occurred after parenteral thiamine treatment. In our patient and in previously described cases of the literature, postsurgical vomiting is a constant finding that seems to be the precipitating factor of neurological complications of gastric partitioning. CONCLUSION: Persistent vomiting after gastroplasty for morbid obesity should be considered an alarming symptom to treat immediately with appropriate measures. ( info)

3/20. Voxel-based mapping of brain hypometabolism in permanent amnesia with PET.

    In this study, we used voxel-based mapping methods to compare the resting cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (CMRglc) measured with PET in five patients with permanent amnesia (three with chronic Wernicke-Korsakoff and two with postanoxia syndrome) to that of nine healthy age-matched subjects. We assessed (i) a group pattern of relative hypometabolism; and (ii) the consistency of this group pattern, if any, in individual subjects, according to etiology. The results from the group analysis documented that permanent amnesia is associated with hypometabolism in the thalamus, posterior cingulate cortex, and mesial prefrontal cortex (near the anterior cingulate gyrus), bilaterally, as well as in the left supramarginal and middle temporal gyri. The individual analysis showed that this group pattern was found in essentially each patient, regardless of the cause of amnesia. Thus, permanent amnesia is subtended by dysfunction in structures belonging to Papez/limbic circuits as well as in left-hemisphere areas typically concerned with verbal functions, probably through a mechanism of thalamo-cortical disconnection and possibly involved in retrograde amnesia. The use of a voxel-based method allowed us to map a common network of synaptic dysfunction in a neuropsychological syndrome regardless of etiology. Our results indicate that this should be a powerful method in functional neuropsychology. ( info)

4/20. An atypical neuropsychological profile of a korsakoff syndrome patient throughout the follow-up.

    The basis of amnesia in alcoholic Wernicke-korsakoff syndrome (WKS) has been generally associated with diencephalic lesions and more specifically with lesions of the anterior thalamic nuclei. These brain structures are considered to be involved in encoding/consolidation processes of episodic memory. However, frontal lobe damage responsible for executive function deficits has also been documented. The present report details the nature and extent of amnesia in an alcoholic patients with WKS and which appears to be mainly due to frontal lobe (executive) deficits. ( info)

5/20. A case of Korsakoff's syndrome improved by high doses of donepezil.

    We present a case of Korsakoff's syndrome that was successfully treated with high doses of donepezil, an inhibitor of acetylcholine esterase, known to retard the progress of symptoms in Alzheimer's disease. The patient was a 46-year-old married Japanese woman who began to drink alcohol after she married. After several years of drinking she developed typical symptoms of the korsakoff syndrome. Donepezil was started after treatment with thiamine or thiamine plus fluvoxamine had failed. Her amnestic symptoms as well as her quality of life improved markedly during donepezil treatment. Inhibition of acetylcholine esterase may be an effective treatment for Korsakoff's syndrome. ( info)

6/20. Primary CNS lymphoma as a cause of korsakoff syndrome.

    BACKGROUND: korsakoff syndrome presents with memory dysfunction with retrograde amnesia, anterograde amnesia, limited insight into dysfunction, and confabulation. The most common etiology of korsakoff syndrome is thiamine deficiency secondary to alcoholism. There are limited case reports of structural lesions causing korsakoff syndrome. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 46-year-old male with a long history of alcoholism presented with a history of confusion, amnesia, and confabulation with no localizing features on neurological examination. The patient showed no clinical change with intravenous thiamine. Computed tomography of the brain revealed a heterogenous, enhancing mass lesion centered within the third ventricle, with other lesions found throughout cortical and subcortical regions. The patient was given dexamethasone i.v. without noticeable clinical improvement but with marked radiological improvement with mass reduction. Stereotactic biopsy revealed a diagnosis of primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma. CONCLUSIONS: Most patients presenting with korsakoff syndrome have thiamine deficiency; however, mass lesions can produce an identical clinical picture. This is the first case report of a patient with primary CNS lymphoma presenting as korsakoff syndrome. ( info)

7/20. Herpesvirus-6 encephalitis complicated by Wernicke-korsakoff syndrome in a pediatric recipient of unrelated cord blood transplantation.

    A 10-year-old girl with M2 acute myeloid leukemia underwent an unrelated cord blood transplantation in refractory first relapse. On day 13, after 48 hours with fever, she showed a measles-like rash, and on day 15, she began experiencing neurologic symptoms (headache, tremors, weakness, nystagmus, mild confusion, speaking, taste, and behavior disturbances, and focal seizures). She also had amnesia for recent events with disability to learn, mimicking Wernicke-korsakoff syndrome. Computed tomography of the brain and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and electroencephalogram were nonspecific. We found human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) dna in CSF and cytomegalovirus in bronchoalveolar lavage using polymerase chain reaction techniques. Treatment with ganciclovir and foscarnet was effective, with total resolution of symptoms. ( info)

8/20. memory loss and ataxia after hyperemesis gravidarum: a case of Wernicke-korsakoff syndrome.

    hyperemesis gravidarum can induce Wernicke-korsakoff syndrome (WKS), a thiamin deficiency disorder characterized by ocular abnormalities, ataxia and disturbance of consciousness. This should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pregnant patients with persisting vomiting and neurological alterations. ( info)

9/20. Wernicke-korsakoff syndrome following small bowel obstruction.

    We report a case of a 64-year-old lady who developed clinical features of Wernicke-korsakoff syndrome following a laparotomy for small bowel obstruction. Following the operation she developed paralytic ileus and required total parenteral nutrition for one month. A suspected history of average 40 units of weekly alcohol consumption prior to the operation could not be confirmed and the patient did not show any sign of alcohol dependence. Within a few months of treatment with a daily oral dose of thiamine 200 mgs supplemented by multivitamins the patient showed subjective evidence of improvement in confusion, confabulation, and anterograde amnesia, although objective tests showed residual deficits in many areas of cognitive functioning, including immediate and delayed recall of verbal and non-verbal materials, planning and switching of attention. ( info)

10/20. Reversible acute axonal polyneuropathy associated with Wernicke-korsakoff syndrome: impaired physiological nerve conduction due to thiamine deficiency?

    Acute axonal polyneuropathy and Wernicke-Korsakoff encephalopathy developed simultaneously in three patients. Nerve conduction studies (NCS) detected markedly decreased compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs) and sensory nerve action potentials (SNAPs) with minimal conduction slowing; sympathetic skin responses (SSRs) were also notably decreased. sural nerve biopsies showed only mild axonal degeneration with scattered myelin ovoid formation. The symptoms of neuropathy lessened within two weeks after an intravenous thiamine infusion. CMAPs, SNAPs, and SSRs also increased considerably. We suggest that this is a new type of peripheral nerve impairment: physiological conduction failure with minimal conduction delay due to thiamine deficiency. ( info)
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