Cases reported "laryngeal edema"

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1/80. Severe postoperative laryngeal oedema causing total airway obstruction immediately on extubation.

    We report a case of total upper airway obstruction occurring immediately after extubation after elective bi-maxillary osteotomy. The obstruction was caused by severe, progressive supraglottic oedema, which totally obscured the laryngeal inlet. No swelling had been present at initial laryngoscopy and intubation. Immediate re-intubation of the patient's trachea was difficult but life saving. Subsequent investigations revealed extensive soft tissue swelling, maximal at the level of the hyoid and extending downwards into the trachea. The cause of such severe oedema in this case is not certain, but may be related to vigorous submental liposuction carried out at the end of operation. We have found no other reports of total airway obstruction occurring immediately after extubation as a result of this cause. We review the appropriate literature, describe the postoperative management and suggest precautions in similar patients. ( info)

2/80. Upper airway compression after arthroscopy of the temporomandibular joint.

    An unusual complication is presented following a temporomandibular arthroscopy carried out under general anaesthesia. Severe cervicofacial oedema occurred immediately after surgery which required prolonged endotracheal intubation. Retrospective analysis revealed a massive fluid escape in the surrounding tissues leading to laryngeal oedema. ( info)

3/80. A pilot study of autofluorescent endoscopy for the in vivo detection of laryngeal cancer.

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the advantage of autofluorescent endoscopy for the identification of laryngeal cancer. STUDY DESIGN: This is a prospective, multicenter clinical study. We investigated whether autofluorescent endoscopy using the lung Imaging Fluorescent endoscopy (life)-lung System (Xillix, Olympus) is capable of identifying early cancer of the larynx, especially in comparison with conventional white-light endoscopy and microscopic laryngoscopy. Benign lesions as well as microinvasive and invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx were investigated. For logistic reasons and because of the pilot character of this study, the number of patients was limited. methods: Sixteen patients having 24 laryngeal lesions of both benign or malignant character were subsequently examined by autofluorescent endoscopy, white-light endoscopy, and microscopic laryngoscopy. Based on optical appearance, and for each method separately, the lesions were classified as malignant or not. The visual results were documented and histologically verified. RESULTS: The sensitivity of autofluorescent endoscopy for laryngeal cancer detection was more than 90% and therefore higher than that of white-light endoscopy and microscopic laryngoscopy. However, as far as laryngeal cancer is concerned, the specificity of autofluorescent endoscopy was very low. Many of the false-positive results were due to inflammation, hypervascularization, and edema. CONCLUSION: Autofluorescent endoscopy is advantageous only in the hands of an experienced ENT specialist. Although it does not replace the combination of white-light endoscopy and a critical evaluation of the clinical symptoms of the individual disease, it can profitably complement them. Autofluorescent endoscopy can help in determining whether microscopic laryngoscopy performed with general anesthesia should be recommended urgently to the patient. Microscopic laryngoscopy remains the best method for the identification of malignant lesions, if it is combined with obtaining taking multiple biopsy specimens. Confirmation of the results of this pilot study with a larger series of patients is desirable. ( info)

4/80. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome after reconstructive laryngectomy for glottic carcinoma.

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is characterized by repetitive episodes of partial or complete obstruction of the upper airway during sleep. The obstruction predominantly occurs along the pharyngeal airway but other sites of obstruction have occasionally been described. We report our experience with three patients suffering from OSAS suspected to be of laryngeal origin. OSAS developed after reconstructive laryngectomy for glottic carcinoma and upper airway obstruction seemed to be located in the reconstructed laryngeal area. The three patients were given nCPAP (nasal-continuous positive airway pressure) treatment associated with peroral endoscopic CO2 laser vaporization of the laryngeal edema. After CO2 laser treatment, one patient was able to stop nCPAP treatment. The other two have remained on nCPAP therapy. OSAS may arise in the post-operative period of reconstructive laryngectomy for glottic carcinoma and can be managed by CO2 laser vaporization (laryngeal edema in the reconstructed area) in association with nCPAP treatment. ( info)

5/80. Laryngeal oedema caused by accidental ingestion of Oil of Wintergreen.

    Oil of Wintergreen (methyl salicylate) is a common ingredient for liniments, ointments and essential oils used in self-treatment of musculoskeletal pain. Its pleasant smell also encourages its use to flavour confectionery. The toxic potential of this preparation is not always fully appreciated by the general public and physicians. To appreciate the danger of this oil it can be compared to aspirin tablets (325 mg dose): one teaspoon (5 ml) of Oil of Wintergreen is equivalent to approximately 7000 mg of salicylate or 21.7 adult aspirin tablets. Ingestion of as little as 4 ml in a child can be fatal. Prevention of accidental ingestion of methyl salicylate containing products can be achieved by keeping the products out of reach of children, using child resistant bottles, restricting the size of the openings of the bottles, appropriate labeling on products and reducing the salicylate content. Immediate action should be taken to treat a patient with accidental poisoning and hospitalisation is needed for monitoring and treatment. The danger of this product should be fully appreciated by both physicians and the general public. We present a case of Oil of Wintergreen poisoning with development of laryngeal oedema as a complication, general information and management issues will also be discussed. ( info)

6/80. Unilateral or localized Reinke's edema (pseudocyst) as a manifestation of vocal fold paresis: the paresis podule.

    BACKGROUND: The nosology of free-edge vocal fold lesions remains imprecise. In particular, the lesion termed pseudocyst remains enigmatic, because its histology is poorly defined and because its etiology is unknown. We define pseudocyst as a discrete, unilateral, localized area of Reinke's edema (without a capsule), usually occurring at the midportion of the free-edge striking zone. OBJECTIVE: To report the demographic and clinical findings, as well as discuss our diagnostic and therapeutic strategies, in patients with unilateral Reinke's edema or pseudocyst. METHODOLOGY: All patients diagnosed with unilateral Reinke's edema or pseudocyst over a 2-year period (1998-1999) were identified from the clinical database of the Center for voice disorders of Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, north carolina. The record of each patient was retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: Thirteen patients were identified, 12 of whom were female. The mean age was 36 years. Sixty-nine percent (9 of 13) had unilateral pseudocyst and 31% (4 of 13) had unilateral Reinke's edema. All patients had documented vocal fold paresis on laryngeal electromyography. The 9 patients with pseudocyst underwent excision of their lesions; 7 had bilateral medialization laryngoplasties, 1 had lipoinjection, and 3 did not have surgical intervention. Significant improvement was noted postoperatively on a self-administered glottal insufficiency (symptom) index (P <.001). CONCLUSION: Unilateral Reinke's edema and localized Reinke's edema (pseudocyst) are distinct clinical entities, occurring most frequently in women in their fourth decade. The finding of unilateral Reinke's edema or pseudocyst should alert the clinician to the likelihood of vocal cord paresis. Surgical intervention with medialization laryngoplasty appears to be beneficial. ( info)

7/80. Severe postoperative haemorrhage and airway obstruction following high-dose enoxaparin.

    Unfractionated heparin infusion may be a more suitable choice of anticoagulant treatment in patients with venous thromboembolism in the immediate postoperative period. ( info)

8/80. Adrenalin treatment for hereditary angioneurotic edema.

    In two patients studied with HAE the repeated use of 1.0 cc of 1:1000 epinephrine every hour for episodes threatening the upper airway resulted in both subjective and objective improvement of signs and symptoms in a manner we interpret as helpful. No harmful side effects have been encountered in these two young, otherwise healthy, people. Until a more definite therapy is found, we believe repeated high doses of adrenalin should be considered in young patients with HAE presenting with symptoms and signs of airway involvement. ( info)

9/80. Uvulitis and partial upper airway obstruction following cannabis inhalation.

    The use of cannabis in our society is a common problem and the subject of much medical and political debate. We present a case in which a 17-year-old male regular cannabis user developed a large swollen uvula (uvulitis) and partial upper airway obstruction after smoking cannabis. Symptoms resolved with the administration of corticosteroids and antihistamines. ( info)

10/80. Laryngeal and other otolaryngologic manifestations of Crohn's disease.

    Laryngeal and other otolaryngologic manifestations of Crohn's disease are uncommon and may be subtle. Crohn's disease is a well-known inflammatory bowel disease of unknown etiology marked by relapsing and remitting granulomatous inflammation of the alimentary tract. Extraintestinal manifestations of Crohn's disease may appear anytime during the course of the disease process and may be the initial symptom. Findings are nonspecific, primarily edema and ulcerations, and may be confused with a multitude of other disease processes. awareness of these manifestations in the head and neck will prevent misdiagnosis or a delay in diagnosis. ( info)
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