Cases reported "Leg Length Inequality"

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1/179. Salvage of the lower leg using a reversed long free fibular flap.

    The advantages of end-to-side anastomoses have been well documented in microvascular surgery. The vessels of the fibular flap do not usually permit end-to-side anastomosis to recipient vessels in the proximal part of the lower leg because the pedicle length of the free fibular flap is usually too short. Therefore, vein grafts are used to elongate the vessels. If a harvested long free fibular flap that is used to bridge a massive defect of the tibia is reversed and placed into the medullary cavity of the tibia, the flap vessels can be anastomosed, using the end-to-side technique, to the recipient vessels without vein grafts in the distal part of the lower leg. Thus, the flap artery (the peroneal artery) fills in a retrograde fashion. The patient reported was reconstructed with a reversed long free fibular flap. The postoperative period was uneventful. The patient can stand and walk with a protective shoe 2 years postoperatively. ( info)

2/179. Meralgia paresthetica secondary to limb length discrepancy: case report.

    Meralgia paresthetica consists of pain and dysthesia in the lateral thigh caused by entrapment of the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve (L2-L3) underneath the inguinal ligament. Abdominal distension, tight clothing, and hip hyperextension are all described causes of this condition. To our knowledge this has never been attributed to a limb length discrepancy. We present a 51-year-old man with a long-standing history of right sided meralgia paresthetica. history and physical and radiological examination were unrewarding except that his left leg was shorter than the right by 2 cm. Nerve conduction studies of the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve on the left had a normal latency and amplitude but were absent on the right. To prove the hpothesis that the limb length discrepancy was responsible for the condition, a single subject study was performed. The presence or absence of pain and dysesthesia in the right thigh was the observed behavior. Intervention consisted of wearing a 1.5-cm lift in the left or right shoe for 2 weeks each with an intervening 2-week lift-free period. pain was recorded on a numeric scale and numbness as being present or absent. There was continuing pain without and with the lift in the right shoe but no pain or numbness with the lift in left shoe. It was concluded that the limb length discrepancy was responsible for the meralgia paresthetica. Pertinent literature and possible pathomechanics are discussed. ( info)

3/179. Spontaneous or traumatic premature closure of the tibial tubercle.

    A premature closure of the physis of the tibial tubercle in a young man has given rise to a shortening of the tibia, a patella alta and a reversed tibial slope of 20 degrees with clinical genu recurvatum. After a proximal open wedge tibial osteotomy all three postural deformities could be restored. The etiology of this complex deformity is discussed. ( info)

4/179. Slipped capital femoral epiphysis after septic arthritis of the hip in an adolescent: report of a case.

    Septic arthritis of the hip must be managed promptly to avoid the serious complications associated with the condition. In the case reported here, the diagnosis was delayed and was complicated by a slipped capital femoral epiphysis. The patient, an adolescent boy previously in good health, presented with a 2-week history of hip pain and systemic illness. Septic arthritis was diagnosed and was managed by incision and drainage and antibiotic therapy. Two weeks later he presented with a subcutaneous abscess and a slipped capital femoral epiphysis, which was pinned in situ. There was a 2.5-cm leg-length discrepancy. Avascular necrosis of the femoral head subsequently developed leaving the boy with a permanent disability. ( info)

5/179. Unilateral tibial hemimelia with leg length inequality and varus foot: external fixator treatment.

    A 15-year-old girl with type II unilateral hemimelia presented with a 13.5-cm shortening of her right leg, absence of the distal half of the tibia, tibiofibular synostosis, and medial dislocation of a cavus and varus foot. She was treated by means of an external fixator. The shortening was significantly corrected, and realignment of the foot with the limb was achieved. An arthrodesis of the talus and lower end of the fibula was carried out operatively and stabilized with an external fixator. In the same surgical procedure, we performed an osteotomy of the tibiofibular synostosis, and progressive distraction was done with another external fixator. We emphasize the advantages of progressive distraction for the correction of congenital deformities of the limbs. ( info)

6/179. Fibrous lesion of the distal femur associated with angular deformity.

    Unilateral femoral angulation is uncommon. We describe two children with unilateral progressive distal femoral varus and limb-length discrepancy. These deformities were associated with a fibrous lesion involving the medial aspect of the distal femoral metaphysis. Both patients were 15 to 16 months old. In both, the deformity was progressive, resulting in excisional biopsy and osteotomy. The gross and microscopic appearance of both lesions was similar, and the histology was dense fibrous connective tissue. The patients' femoral alignment was maintained at follow-up of a minimum of 16-36 months. The etiology of these lesions is unknown; they are associated with progressive deformity and appear to respond well to surgical intervention. ( info)

7/179. Spontaneous healing of an atrophic pseudoarthrosis during femoral lengthening. A case report with six-year follow-up.

    A seven-year old girl developed an atrophic pseudoarthrosis at the midshaft of the femur with 8.5 cm of femoral shortening after an open type II fracture. During a femoral lengthening procedure, the pseudoarthrosis filled with spontaneous callus formation and bone union was obtained. ( info)

8/179. Use of Van Nes rotationplasty to manage a burnt knee.

    An 11 month old child sustained a deep burn injury to the left knee causing total destruction and sequestration of the knee epiphyses. The ensuing leg length discrepancy with growth was managed by a Van Nes rotationplasty at age four with a good immediate functional result using a below 'knee' prosthesis and the prospect of continuing ambulation as he grows. The surgical options for managing this problem are discussed. ( info)

9/179. Ilizarov lengthening in centralized fibula.

    Tibial hemimelia often produces major limb length problems (1,6,9,15) as well as foot deformity. The decision to perform reconstructive surgery depends on the expected leg-length discrepancy, the anomalies of the foot, and the status of the knee (4,6,8,15). Congenital bone deficiencies usually have a constant rate of growth inhibition (8), and leg lengthening is often associated with more complications (5,13). The complication rate is also increased with the increased leg-length discrepancy (5). In tibial hemimelia with functioning quadriceps (types I and II) and a functional foot, centralization of the fibula onto the talus and synostosis with the proximal tibia is an accepted reconstructive procedure (1,4,6,7,9,15). However, when the transplanted fibula produces a functional limb for the patient, the correction of leg-length inequality would be a challenge. This is a report of such a case. ( info)

10/179. Prenatal ultrasonographic diagnosis of posteromedial bowing of the leg: two case reports.

    Congenital posteromedial bowing of the leg was prenatally detected in two pregnancies, at 20 and 31 weeks of gestation. Posteromedial bowing is a rare anomaly of unknown etiology. The prenatal course, monitored by ultrasonography, and the postnatal clinical and radiographic outcomes are discussed and show a complex differential diagnosis. The initial postnatal therapy is conservative. Leg length discrepancy can eventually be treated by lengthening or epiphysiodesis on the contralateral side. ( info)
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