Cases reported "Leishmaniasis, Visceral"

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1/294. Kala-azar in zambia: first report of two cases.

    Two autochthonous cases of kala-azar, the first such report of the disease from Central and Southern africa, are described. Both patients presented with generalized macules, papules and nodules without ulceration and both also had tuberculosis. Amastigotes were cultured from blood and identified in skin, bone marrow, liver and spleen. ( info)

2/294. Visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis (report of 2 cases).

    leishmaniasis is an endemic, sporadic infection in many parts of the world. turkey is geographically unique in linking asia and europe. Of special interest is leishmaniasis, as various forms of this disease have long been reported in the surrounding regions. Visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis are endemic in the western and southeastern parts of turkey, respectively. Here, we report a cutaneous and a visceral leishmaniasis case, to draw attention to the increase in the incidence of leishmaniasis in turkey. In the patient with cutaneous leishmaniasis, the ulcerative lesion on the cheek had persisted for two months before admittance to the hospital. Direct smears prepared from this lesion were negative for leishmania amastigotes whereas the promastigote forms were maintained in NNN (Novy-MacNeal-Nicolle) medium. The second patient was hospitalized with a prediagnosis of haematological malignancy, but the smears prepared from the bone marrow aspirates revealed leishmania amastigotes and promastigotes were seen on the smears from NNN cultures. These two reports mark the importance of inoculation of the specimens to NNN medium for the recovery of the promastigote forms. Cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis have become endemic in considerable number of foci in turkey, possibly due to the cessation of vector control programmes and increase in the agricultural and irrigation areas. These two reports also point out the increased prevalence of leishmaniasis in turkey after 1980's. ( info)

3/294. Revival of tetracyclines--in the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis?

    A 37-year-old immigrant from kosovo who had been in switzerland for 2 years developed fever, cough, weight loss and malaise. serology (complement binding reaction) was positive for leptospirosis. The symptoms resolved very rapidly under vibramycin 2 x 100 mg/day for 3 weeks. However, a flare-up occurred after cessation of medication. Reexposure to tetracyclines improved the symptoms though they did not subside completely. bone marrow analysis demonstrated intracellular leishmania (amastigotes). Analysis of frozen serum preserved since the first hospitalisation and samples from the second admission were positive for leishmania (indirect fluorescence antibody test) and confirmed the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis. Reevaluation of the serology for leptospirosis was negative using the specific microagglutination method. Treatment with antimony for 28 days resolved all symptoms. The parasites of visceral leishmaniasis grow intracellularly and eradication may be impossible in patients with an impaired cellular immune response. Flare-ups thus recur in 60-100% of patients with organ transplants or AIDS, despite regular treatment. Our finding raises the question whether relapses are suppressed in immunocompromised patients by tetracyclines, drugs known to be well tolerated even under long-term exposure. Randomised studies are required in this setting. ( info)

4/294. Visceral leishmaniasis: an opportunistic infection in haematological malignancy.

    Visceral leishmaniasis is a rare but potentially life threatening opportunistic protozoan infection in immunocompromised patients. The clinical manifestations in these patients are unusual and the diagnosis is difficult. They need prolonged treatment and are liable to have relapses. Here we report three patients with haematological malignancy (one with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, one with chronic myeloid leukaemia, and one with myelodysplastic syndrome) complicated with visceral leishmaniasis. The clinical presentation, diagnosis, and outcome are discussed. ( info)

5/294. Visceral leishmaniasis in renal transplant recipients: successful treatment with liposomal amphotericin b (AmBisome).

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a rare disease in renal transplant recipients. Liposomal amphotericin b (AmBisome) is known to be effective against VL. However, previously there has been no experience with administration of such treatment to renal transplant recipients. We report herein four patients with VL complicating renal transplantation who were treated successfully with liposomal amphotericin b (total dose, 23-40 mg/kg). Neither adverse reactions nor clinical relapses of VL were observed. ( info)

6/294. coinfection of visceral leishmaniasis and Mycobacterium in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    We report a case of coinfection of visceral leishmaniasis and mycobacterium avium-intracellulare in the same lesions in the small bowel and bone marrow of a 33-year-old man with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome who complained of abdominal pain and chronic diarrhea. The duodenal mucosa and bone marrow biopsy specimens showed numerous foamy macrophages packed with two forms of microorganisms that were identified histologically and ultrastructurally as Leishmania and Mycobacterium species. Visceral leishmaniasis is rarely suspected in patients residing in nonendemic countries including the united states. It should be included in the differential diagnosis for opportunistic infection in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. An appropriate travel history is important. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case showing coinfection of visceral leishmaniasis and mycobacterium avium-intracelluulare in the same lesion in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. ( info)

7/294. Mixed cryoglobulinemia secondary to visceral leishmaniasis.

    We describe a case of type II mixed cryoglobulinemia, with monoclonal IgMkappa rheumatoid factor, associated with visceral leishmaniasis caused by leishmania infantum. Involvement of Leishmania antigen(s) in the formation of cryoprecipitable immune complexes was suggested by the fact that cryoglobulinemic vasculitis subsided after antiparasite therapy and that anti-Leishmania antibodies, as well as rheumatoid factor, were enriched in the cryoprecipitate. We observed 2 additional patients with visceral leishmaniasis and cryoglobulinemic vasculitis. All 3 patients had seemingly contracted leishmaniasis in italy, were hepatitis c virus negative, and were initially diagnosed as having autoimmune disorders. These findings indicate that Leishmania can be an etiologic agent of type II mixed cryoglobulinemia. This parasitosis should be taken into consideration in the differential diagnosis of vasculitides in endemic areas. ( info)

8/294. meglumine antimoniate, amiodarone and torsades de pointes: a case report.

    Pentavalent antimonial drugs used for the treatment of leishmaniasis have been associated with sudden deaths, probably due to the development of ventricular tachyarrhythmias. Prolongation of the QT interval and ventricular tachyarrhymias have been described in patients on amiodarone therapy. We report a case of recurrent torsades de pointes following treatment with pentavalent antimonial drugs and amiodarone. ( info)

9/294. Visceral leishmaniasis in costa rica: first case report.

    We describe a 15-month-old eutrophic immunocompetent male who presented with fever, hepatosplenomegaly, pancytopenia, and hypergammaglobulinemia. Leishmania amastigotes were identified in spleen and bone marrow specimens. In addition, tissue culture, animal inoculation, and isoenzyme analysis identified the parasite as leishmania donovani infantum or leishmania donovani chagasi. The infant was successfully treated with an antimonial drug. These findings represent the first case of visceral leishmaniasis reported in costa rica. ( info)

10/294. Unusual cutaneous lesions in two patients with visceral leishmaniasis and hiv infection.

    Two hiv infected patients with visceral leishmaniasis and unusual cutaneous lesions are described. The first patient developed linear brown macules containing Leishmania parasites on the fingers and palms of the hands. This patient never received highly active antiretroviral treatment and the visceral leishmaniasis could not be cured even with liposomal amphotericin. In the second patient, Leishmania parasites were present in a skin biopsy of a fibrous histiocytoma. After completing visceral leishmaniasis treatment, a discrete elevation of one of his tattoos was seen. A biopsy specimen of this tattoo revealed Leishmania amastigotes. In this patient the visceral leishmaniasis was finally cured with meglumine antimoniate, followed by pentacarinat isothianate as maintenance therapy in conjunction with highly active antiretroviral treatment. ( info)
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