Cases reported "leukemia"

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1/1051. Transient leukemia with extreme basophilia in a phenotypically normal infant with blast cells containing a pseudodiploid clone, 46,XY i(21)(q10).

    PURPOSE: Transient leukemia and extreme basophilia occurred in a phenotypically normal newborn with expression of isochromosome (21)(q10) in the blast population. patients AND methods: A newborn boy was found to have an elevated white blood cell count of 120,800 with 33% blasts. The peripheral blood also contained elevated numbers of basophils and neutrophils with unusual staining properties. The blasts, evaluated by flow cytometry and light and electron microscopy, had the properties of megakaryoblasts. Cytogenetic studies revealed 46,XY karyotype in peripheral blood lymphocytes; however, analysis of the blast cells from the bone marrow showed an abnormal chromosome 21. RESULTS: The blast cells in the peripheral blood disappeared by day 42 without chemotherapy. The red blood cell count and platelet count normalized by 2 months. Chromosomal analysis of skin fibroblasts and bone marrow after the disappearance of the blast cells in the peripheral blood showed a 46,XY phenotype. CONCLUSIONS: The leukemic cell of transient leukemia has the potential of forming cells of basophil and megakaryocyte lineages. trisomy of the q arm of chromosome 21 contains sufficient genetic information for the development of transient leukemia in a phenotypically normal newborn. ( info)

2/1051. Acute leukemia with the phenotype of a natural killer/T cell bipotential precursor.

    An acute leukemia with an unusual immunophenotype developed in a 17-year-old girl. At the initial presentation, extramedullary involvement was not evident, but with advancing disease, massive splenomegaly and an osteolytic rib tumor developed. The disease was aggressive and refractory to intensive chemotherapeutic regimens for myeloid and lymphoid malignancies, and the patient died 3 months after the initial presentation. The leukemic cells were of irregular shape and variable size; they had deeply indented or bi-lobed nuclei and relatively fine, azurophilic granules in their cytoplasm. They were positive for acid phosphatase and beta-glucuronidase in granular staining, but they were negative for myeloperoxidase. The leukemic cells had a unique immunophenotype: it was positive for T-cell antigens (CD1a, CD2, cytoplasmic CD3, CD4), myeloid antigens (CD13 and CD33), NK-cell antigen (CD56), CD19 and CD30. dna analysis revealed no gene rearrangement in the T-cell receptor beta, gamma and delta, or immunoglobulin heavy chain genes. The leukemic cells of our patient are thought to have arisen from the transformation of a putative precursor cell common to both the T- and NK-cell lineage in the bone marrow. The current literature on precursor NK-cell malignancy is reviewed, and its clinicopathological feature is discussed. ( info)

3/1051. Antifungal susceptibility of aspergillus species isolated from invasive oral infection in neutropenic patients with hematologic malignancies.

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relevance of in vitro antifungal susceptibility to clinical response in neutropenic patients with invasive oral aspergillosis. STUDY DESIGN: Nine isolates of aspergillus species were obtained from invasive oral infections in 9 patients with hematologic malignancies and tested for their in vitro susceptibility to amphotericin b, fluconazole, miconazole, 5-fluorocytosine, and itraconazole. Minimal inhibitory concentration values of the 5 drugs were obtained for each fungus through use of a microdilution broth method. The patients were treated with intravenous amphotericin b (30-50 mg/day) in combination with oral 5-fluorocytosine (3000-6000 mg/day) and/or oral itraconazole (200 mg/day). RESULTS: amphotericin b and itraconazole were found to be very active, with minimal inhibitory concentration values of 0.861 and 0.194 microg/mL, respectively. miconazole and 5-fluorocytosine showed minimal inhibitory concentration values of 1.72 and 3.56 microg/mL, respectively. On the other hand, fluconazole FCZ showed low activity, with a minimal inhibitory concentration value in excess of 64.0 microg/mL. During neutropenia, combined antifungal chemotherapy stabilized oral aspergillosis and prevented the spread of oral lesions in 8 patients in whom neutrophil counts eventually recovered. CONCLUSIONS: The results imply that in vitro susceptibility testing may serve as an informative parameter with respect to the efficacy of these antifungals in the treatment of invasive oral aspergillosis, inducing fungal stasis until the neutrophils recover. ( info)

4/1051. Clinical outcome in three patients with myelodysplastic syndrome showing polyclonal hematopoiesis.

    The clinical outcome of 3 myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients with polyclonal hematopoiesis is reported. All patients were heterozygous for the phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) gene. The presence of polyclonal hematopoiesis was determined by the X-chromosome-linked restriction fragment length polymorphism-methylation method using the PGK gene as a marker. The patients were initially diagnosed as having refractory anemia (RA), RA with ring sideroblasts (RARS), and RA with an excess of blasts (RAEB), respectively. Their pancytopenia persisted during the follow-up period of 11.4 years for the RA patient, 19.5 years for the RARS patient and 0.8 years for the RAEB patient. Although the RARS patient continues to be in good health, leukemic transformation occurred in the other 2 patients. A karyotype change from 46,XX to 45,XX,t(3;21),-7 was observed at the time of disease progression in the RA patient. The coexistence of a monoclonal MDS clone and normal bone marrow cells is thought to be the most probable reason for the polyclonal hematopoiesis of these patients. ( info)

5/1051. Induction of hyperacute graft-vs-host disease after donor leukocyte infusions.

    BACKGROUND: Infusions of leukocytes obtained from the original bone marrow donor is a new approach for treating patients who have a relapse of leukemia after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Up to 90% of patients who achieved remission developed graft-vs-host disease (GVHD). However, any description of the clinical and histologic features in these cases is lacking. OBSERVATIONS: We describe 2 patients in whom a severe, peculiar, hyperacute, fatal GVHD developed after treatment with donor leukocyte infusions and interferon alfa. The patients had not received any additional chemotherapy or GVHD prophylaxis. In both patients, the eruption started with the appearance of erythematous plaques at the interferon alfa injection sites, and a generalized maculopapular eruption subsequently developed. The clinical lesions evolved from acute to lichenoid within several days. The histologic examination also demonstrated unusual findings and showed features of both acute and chronic lichenoid GVHD. CONCLUSIONS: Donor leukocyte infusions without GVHD prophylaxis may provoke a severe fatal hyperacute GVHD. In the cases presented herein, we discuss the significance of the rapid clinical evolution from acute to lichenoid and the combination of histologic features of both acute and chronic GVHD in the biopsy specimens. ( info)

6/1051. Jumping translocations involving chromosome 1q in a patient with crohn disease and acute monocytic leukemia: a review of the literature on jumping translocations in hematological malignancies and crohn disease.

    A 36-year-old man with a 10-year history of crohn disease (CD) presented with gross hematuria and blasts in his peripheral blood. A chromosome analysis revealed one normal cell and 33 abnormal cells. The stem line was 47,XY, 8. The multiple side lines also had a jumping translocation between chromosome 1q31-32 and 4, 8, 10, 17, and 18 terminal regions. A cytogenetic, morphologic, and immunophenotypic analysis of a bone marrow aspirate and biopsy demonstrated acute myeloid leukemia of monocytic lineage, AML-M5b. In this paper are reviewed (a) the unusual and rare phenomenon of jumping translocations in hematological malignancies and (b) leukemia in CD. ( info)

7/1051. Intracranial calcification mimicking the sturge-weber syndrome: a consequence of cerebral folic acid deficiency?

    Cerebral cortical calcification identical to that of the sturge-weber syndrome was observed in two children. In one child the calcification appeared after intrathecal administration of methotrexate and skull irradiation because of leukemia involving the central nervous system. In the other child, who had coeliac disease and epilepsy, the calcification appeared after treatment with anticonvulsants. This treatment was also contributing to the development of profound megaloblastic anemia. The unspecificity of the Sturge-Weber calcification is stressed and the hypothesis is put forward that the calcification may be secondary to folic acid deficiency interfering with the matabolism in the central nervous system. ( info)

8/1051. Levels of soluble FasL and FasL gene expression during the development of graft-versus-host disease in DLT-treated patients.

    Three patients with different clinical symptoms of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) who had received donor lymphocyte transfusion (DLT) for the treatment of relapsed leukaemia after an allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) from HLA-matched sibling donors were analysed for the presence of soluble FasL (sFasL) in the sera and for the expression of the Fas ligand (FasL) gene in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNC). Two patients who demonstrated liver damage with increased levels of serum bilirubin showed significantly increased levels of serum sFasL. The increase in the sFasL level was observed prior to the increase in the bilirubin during the clinical courses of both patients. The high dose of methyl predonisolone administered to one of these patients greatly reduced the levels of sFasL in the serum. The bilirubin levels were also reduced thereafter. The third patient (without liver damage) did not show any increase in the serum sFasL level. The expression of the FasL gene in the PBMNC of these three patients was examined. All three patients showed increased levels of the FasL gene expression during their clinical courses. However, only one patient showed a parallel alteration of FasL gene expression with sFasL in the serum. These cases provide evidence that the Fas/FasL system is closely associated with human GVHD, especially in the development of liver GVHD. ( info)

9/1051. Characterization of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected natural killer (NK) cell proliferation in patients with severe mosquito allergy; establishment of an IL-2-dependent NK-like cell line.

    The clinical evidence of a relationship between severe hypersensitivity to mosquito bite (HMB) and clonal expansion of EBV-infected NK cells has been accumulated. In order to clarify the mechanism of EBV-induced NK cell proliferation and its relationship with high incidence of leukaemias or lymphomas in HMB patients, we studied clonally expanded NK cells from three HMB patients and succeeded in establishing an EBV-infected NK-like cell line designated KAI3. immunoblotting and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses revealed that KAI3 cells as well as infected NK cells exhibited an EBV latent infection type II, where EBV gene expression was limited to EBNA 1 and LMP1. As KAI3 was established by culture with IL-2, IL-2 responsiveness of peripheral blood NK cells from patients was examined. The results represented markedly augmented IL-2-induced IL-2R alpha expression in NK cells. This characteristic property may contribute to the persistent expansion of infected NK cells. However, KAI3 cells as well as the NK cells from patients were not protected from apoptosis induced by either an anti-Fas antibody or NK-sensitive k562 cells. Preserved sensitivity to apoptosis might explain the relatively regulated NK cell numbers in the peripheral blood of the patients. To our knowledge, KAI3 is the first reported NK-like cell line established from patients of severe chronic active EBV infection (SCAEBV) before the onset of leukaemias or lymphomas. KAI3 cells will contribute to the study of EBV persistency in the NK cell environment and its relationship with high incidence of leukaemias or lymphomas in HMB patients. ( info)

10/1051. Blastic mantle cell leukemia: a previously undescribed form.

    The leukemic phase of mantle cell lymphoma (mantle cell leukemia) is defined as an absolute lymphocyte count of greater than 4,000/microliter and characterized by the presence of relatively small, slightly irregular lymphocytes in the peripheral blood. Although a variant of mantle cell lymphoma with blastic morphsology exists and has been previously well described, a blastic morphologic variant of mantle cell leukemia has not been described. We report such a case in a 74-year-old male who presented with splenic rupture and an elevated white blood cell (WBC) count. The diagnosis was based on flow cytometric immunophenotyping and the cytomorphology of the peripheral blood. ( info)
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