Cases reported "Leukemoid Reaction"

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1/78. Granulocyte colony stimulating factor-producing diffuse malignant mesothelioma of pleura.

    We report the rare case of a 61-year-old man with a diffuse malignant mesothelioma of mixed subtype which produced granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). The white blood cell (WBC) was elevated to 85,100/mm3 without any evidence of infection, and the G-CSF level in the pleural effusion was also increased at 13,200 pg/ml. The lobes of the lung were encased in a tumor. Histopathologically, the tumor cells were of a polymorphous morphology with an epithelial and sarcomatoid mixed pattern. immunohistochemistry showed that the tumor cells were positive for vimentin, cytokeratin, epithelial membrane antigen, thrombomodulin, and G-CSF, and negative for carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), CD34, and surfactant apoprotein-A. ( info)

2/78. Leukaemoid reaction and disseminated tuberculosis. A case report.

    Four cases of leukaemoid reactions to tuberculosis, notwithstanding the presence of Auer's rods in the myeloblasts, have previously been reported. A fifth case of disseminated tuberculosis in which Auer's rods were similarly observed, is described. However, we believe that this association does not mean that Auer's rods occur as part of a leukaemoid response, but rather that it indicates the simultaneous presence of acute leukaemia and tuberculosis. ( info)

3/78. Carcinocythemia (carcinoma cell leukemia). An acute leukemia-like picture due to metastatic carcinoma cells.

    observation of a unique population of cells on a Wright-stained blood smear of a patient with metastatic breast carcinoma prompted a study to determine their origin. The primary carcinoma contained a marker, the presence of "signet cells." These were demonstrated in direct peripheral smears and buffy coat preparation of peripheral blood and confirmed histochemically by showing positive periodic acid-Schiff, alpha-napthol and beta-glucuronidase reactions. "Carcinocythemia" is suggested as a name for this unusual process observed over a six month period. Studies of the patient's immunocompetence, of circulating cell surface immunoglobulins and karyotype analysis were made. Postmortem examination revealed retroperitoneal fibrosis, splenic atrophy and extensive metastatic carcinoma but no evidence of leukemia. The cells will be contrasted to those seen in a second patient who appeared to have acute myelocytic leukemia complicating extensive cancer involving the bone marrow. The observations suggest that a leukemia-like blood picture due to circulating cancer cells may occur during the course of metastatic breast carcinoma. ( info)

4/78. Neonatal leukemoid reaction and early development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in a very low-birth-weight infant.

    The factors controlling the recruitment of inflammatory cells and the activation of the cytokine cascade in low-birth-weight premature infants have been implicated in the sequence of multiorgan inflammatory diseases, including the chronic lung disease of prematurity, bronchopulmonary dysplasia. This article describes a 982-gram, 25 ( 2 days) weeks' gestation male infant, who had a leukemoid reaction throughout the first week of life, followed by early development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. ( info)

5/78. Disseminated hepatosplenic mycobacterial infection masking myeloproliferative diseases as leukemoid reaction: a diagnostic pitfall.

    The distinction of myeloproliferative disease (MPD) from leukemoid reactions due to reactive causes can be difficult. In the presence of simultaneous occurrence of MPD and an established infection, only the demonstration of a clonal marker or prolonged observation can substantiate the diagnosis. We present three cases of MPD presenting as leukemoid reaction due to disseminated hepatosplenic mycobacterial sepsis. There appeared to be an association between MPD and reduced resistance to mycobacterial infection. Clinicians and hematologist should be aware of such a predisposition and possible dual pathology for proper diagnosis, therapy and monitoring of both the infection and the myeloproliferation. ( info)

6/78. Undifferentiated ovarian carcinoma associated with leukemoid reaction.

    Exceptionally excess leukocytosis or leukemoid reaction may develop in association with carcinomas of the lung and stomach. The authors describe a 72-year-old lady with FIGO stage III ovarian undifferentiated carcinoma who presented with fever and abdominal pain. Her serial WBC counts were up to 143,000/microl with elevated leukocyte alkaline phosphatase score. She received extended total hysterectomy, left salpingo-oophorectomy, and de-bulking of the retroperitoneal mass. Her left ovarian cancer was composed of diffuse sheets of large undifferentiated cells that were immunoreactive for cytokeratin, confirming the epithelial nature. She passed away one week after operation and five weeks after presentation without autopsy. This is the first report of ovarian cancer associated with leukemoid reaction in the English literature. ( info)

7/78. Mesenteric inflammatory pseudotumor: unusual presentation with leukemoid reaction and massive calcified mass.

    The authors describe a child with an unusual presentation of mesenteric inflammatory pseudotumor in association with leukemoid reaction. An 11-year-old-boy admitted with short stature was found to have an abdominal mass localized in the right lower quadrant. The leukocyte count was 92,000/mm3 with neutrophilic leukemoid reaction. Abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography revealed a massive calcified mass in the pelvis. Total resection of the mass was performed and the pathologic diagnosis of inflammatory pseudotumor of the mesentery was made. leukemoid reaction dramatically resolved within a few days after surgical resection. physicians should be aware of the association of inflammatory pseudotumor, leukemoid reaction, and massive calcification. ( info)

8/78. Leukemoid response in ethylene glycol intoxication.

    A 33-y-old male developed severe acidosis, renal failure, and profound neutrophilia after ingesting ethylene glycol. Workup for his neutrophilia excluded infectious and malignant causes. An elevated leukocyte alkaline phosphatase (LAP) level confirmed a leukemoid response, and the neutrophila resolved. Although several leukemoid reactions have been published due to therapeutic agents these reports are often incomplete or inaccurate; this is the first case of leukemoid response to a toxin. Leukemoid response is distinguishable from leukemia by the absence of clonally derived cells, although this is not easily apparent in extreme neutrophilia. Elevated LAP is useful in identifying leukemoid reaction from leukemia in cases of extreme neutrophila. If a patient develops extreme neutrophila in association with drug or toxin exposure, a leukemoid reaction should be considered and an LAP obtained. ( info)

9/78. Steroidal management and serum cytokine profile of a case of alcoholic hepatitis with leukemoid reaction.

    Leukemoid reactions (LRs) are rare in alcoholic hepatitis (AH), but they are a sign of poor prognosis. The treatment of AH with corticosteroids is controversial, though several reports suggest that these should be used in severe cases of AH. We report a case of AH-associated LRs that presented with an increase of the serum concentrations of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-18 (an initiator of inflammation) and IL-1beta (likely responsible for the neutrophilia of the LRs). These findings provided a pathogenic indication for the use of corticosteroids (that block the transcription of IL-1beta), and this approach achieved a clinical and analytical recovery in our patient. This pathogenic mechanism might also underlie other cases of LRs and other complications of AH, thus providing a rationale for the benefits of corticotherapy in these rare but severe conditions. ( info)

10/78. Polyclonal reactive peripheral blood plasmacytosis mimicking plasma cell leukemia in a patient with Staphylococcal sepsis.

    A 41-year-old man presented with rhabdomyolysis and sepsis while the peripheral blood smear showed a pseudo-leukemic picture of plasma cells. After starting supportive therapy, the morphologic finding disappeared within 24 h. ( info)
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