Cases reported "megacolon"

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1/122. Distal neonatal intestinal obstruction: the choice of contrast material.

    The use of barium sulfate as the contrast agent of choice in the radiographic evaluation of distal neonatal intestinal obstruction is advocated. The advantages of Gastrografin or other water-soluble contrast materials are far outweighed by their disadvantages, which include the hazards of hypertonic dehydration and the danger of missing the diagnosis of Hirschsprung's disease. Five patients are presented, all of whom had the diagnosis of Hirschsprung's disease missed in the neonatal period with one use of Gastrografin enemas. All five were subsequently admitted to the Surgical Neonatal intensive care Unit, critically ill with enterocolitis of Hirschsprung's disease. ( info)

2/122. Colonic manifestations of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2b: report of four cases.

    multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2b is best known for its endocrine manifestations and typical phenotype. The gastrointestinal manifestations, however, are also an important and commonly unrecognized component of the syndrome. We present four cases that demonstrate the varied presentation of patients with colonic manifestations of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2b. We discuss the cause, diagnostic significance, and management of the colonic disease that is a component of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2b. ( info)

3/122. Loss of interstitial cells and a fibromuscular layer on the luminal side of the colonic circular muscle presenting as megacolon in an adult patient.

    BACKGROUND: Animal studies have shown that the neuromuscular structures on the luminal side of the colonic circular muscle coordinate circular muscle activity. These structures have been identified by electron microscopy in the normal human colon, but have never been thoroughly studied in patients with acquired intestinal hypoganglionosis. AIMS: To perform histological, immunocytochemical, and electron microscopic examinations of the colon of a patient with acquired intestinal hypoganglionosis presenting as megacolon. PATIENT: A 32 year old man with a one year history of constipation and abdominal distention, a massively dilated ascending and transverse colon, and a normal calibre rectum and descending and sigmoid colon. He had a high titre of circulating serum anti-neuronal nuclear antibodies. methods: histology, immunocytochemistry (for neurofilaments, neurone specific enolase, synaptophysin, glial fibrillar acidic protein, S100 protein, and smooth muscle alpha-actin), and electron microscopic examinations on the resected colon. RESULTS: The number of ganglion cells and nerve trunks was decreased throughout the colon. Disruption of the neural network and a loss of interstitial cells of cajal were observed on the luminal side of the circular muscle; in their place, the non-dilated colon contained a hypertrophic fibromuscular layer. CONCLUSIONS: Striking architectural alterations occurred at the site regarded as the source of the coordination of colonic circular muscle activity in an adult patient with acquired intestinal hypoganglionosis presenting as megacolon. ( info)

4/122. Acquired segmental megacolon in an adult patient with cystic fibrosis.

    cystic fibrosis (CF) is characterized by symptoms related to pulmonary dysfunction and pancreatic insufficiency. constipation, though a frequent complaint of patients with CF, receives less attention. We report a case of acquired segmental megacolon and constipation necessitating surgical colonic resection in an adult patient with CF. The differential diagnosis and possible causes of megacolon in this setting are discussed. ( info)

5/122. Intravenous feeding of a complete diet in a child: report of a case.

    A 5-month-old white infant with Hirschsprung's disease, complicated by a digestive upset and upper respiratory infection, developed a most extreme picture of marasmus which gave every indication of an impending fatal termination. The baby was given a complete intravenous feeding for five days with fats, carbohydrate, and amino acids in proportions and quantities recommended in a normal infant's diet. There was a prompt dramatic improvement in the nutrition, permitting eventual successful treatment of the Hirschsprung's disease with prostigmine. We believe that this is the first case on record of complete feeding by vein alone for a significant period of time. The success in this child suggests strongly that total feedings by vein can be a practical and lifesaving procedure, especially applicable to children who are marasmic, or are for any reason unable to handle an adequate diet by mouth, or in whom it is desirable to withhold oral feedings for therapeutic purposes. ( info)

6/122. Idiopathic megarectum complicating pregnancy: report of a case.

    pregnancy often exacerbates constipation in young women with chronic constipation syndromes. The presence of the fetus presents a challenge in both the diagnosis and treatment of these syndromes. This study was conducted to report a rare case of idiopathic megarectum complicating a pregnancy. An aggressive polyethylene glycol (PEG) regimen allowed the patient to carry the child to term and to have a normal vaginal delivery. Successful proctocolectomy was performed with coloanal anastomosis 3 months postpartum. The patient has been free of constipation for 18 months without the need for cathartics or laxatives. All efforts to avoid operative intervention should be made in constipated patients during pregnancy. This principle holds true even in the setting of dilated large bowel. Idiopathic megarectum and the management of constipation in pregnancy are discussed. ( info)

7/122. Surgical treatment of a sigmoid volvulus associated with megacolon: report of a case.

    Sigmoid volvulus occurring concomitantly with megacolon is an uncommon cause of bowel obstruction, and various approaches to treatment have been proposed. We report herein a case of sigmoid volvulus with megacolon that was successfully treated by elective surgery following endoscopic reduction during the same hospital stay. A 70-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with abdominal pain, distension, and severe constipation. physical examination, plain abdominal X-ray, and barium enema confirmed a sigmoid volvulus and further examinations revealed concomitant megacolon. An elective sigmoid colectomy was performed following successful endoscopic decompression. The postoperative course was uneventful and there was no residual colonic dysmotility. Histologically, no aganglionic tissue was observed in the resected specimen. ( info)

8/122. Application of the Malone antegrade continence enema principle in degenerative leiomyopathy.

    An 1-year-old boy with degenerative leiomyopathy (DL) presented with a volvulus of the transverse colon. After derotating the volvulus, we constructed a tube colostomy (TC) from the transverse colon. This TC has been used for the past 2 years by the patient for regular deflation of the colon and antegrade colonic enemas (ACE). We present this as a preliminary report of the use of the Malone ACE procedure in a patient with DL and review the relevant literature. ( info)

9/122. Chagasic megaesophagus and megacolon diagnosed in childhood and probably caused by vertical transmission.

    Reports on children presenting symptoms compatible with the chronic phase of chagas disease are sporadic. We report a case of a 7-year-old boy who had megaesophagus and megacolon, both of them a consequence of the trypanosomiasis. The etiology was established by means of laboratory and histological features. Based on epidemiological data, the authors concluded that vertical transmission was the most probable route of acquisition. This diagnosis should be considered in children presenting similar complaints, even those living away from endemic areas. ( info)

10/122. association of chagasic megacolon and cancer of the colon: case report and review of the literature.

    There are few descriptions of association between chagasic megacolon and colon cancer. We report a case of obstructive abdomen caused by adenocarcinoma of the left colon in chagasic megacolon. A review of the literature revealed 8 cases of this association and, analyzing together the series of findings of cancer in chagasic organomegalies, we found a frequency of 4.8% in megaesophagus and 0.1% in megacolon. ( info)
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