Cases reported "Meningocele"

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1/478. Ocular malformations, moyamoya disease, and midline cranial defects: a distinct syndrome.

    PURPOSE: To report a 10-year-old girl with developmental anomalies of both optic disks, a chorioretinal coloboma, sphenopharyngeal meningoencephalocele, and moyamoya disease. methods: A full ophthalmologic examination, cranial magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance angiography, and cerebral angiography were performed. RESULTS: The patient had a morning glory disk anomaly and microphthalmos of the right eye and optic nerve hypoplasia and retinochoroidal coloboma in the left eye. She had a midfacial cleft and an episode of seizures and a stroke. magnetic resonance imaging showed a sphenopharyngeal meningoencephalocele. magnetic resonance angiography and cerebral angiography demonstrated a pattern consistent with moyamoya disease. CONCLUSIONS: This patient had a distinct syndrome of optic disk, retinochoroidal, and carotid circulation anomalies with midline cranial defects. The recognition and treatment of the vascular abnormalities and cranial defects may prevent complications such as strokes that may occur during or after general anesthesia. ( info)

2/478. Cutaneomeningospinal angiomatosis (Cobb syndrome) with tethered cord.

    A newborn presented with a skin-covered lumbar mass with a subcutaneous hemangioma and on a magnetic resonance image (MRI) revealed a tethered spinal cord with a local mass. The mass had signal characteristics compatible with a lipoma. An initial diagnosis of a lipomeningocele with tethered cord was made, and the patient underwent surgical exploration and subtotal resection of the mass. A follow-up MRI revealed that the cord was still tethered, but an additional mass was present. The initial mass with signal characteristics of lipomatous tissue was accompanied by a low-signal mass in the lumbosacral canal, ventral to the cord, and bilateral enlargement of the foramina at the lumbosacral level. Because of a concern for an intraspinal tumor, a second operative intervention was performed. Multiple biopsies of the mass inside the spinal cord, the nerve roots and at the level of the foramina revealed angiomas that had similar pathology in all the specimens. A partial resection of the masses and a release of the tethered cord was performed by sectioning the thickened filum terminale. The diagnosis of Cobb's syndrome was made. The unique association of a tethered cord and the Cobb syndrome is reported here. ( info)

3/478. Transnasal endoscopic repair of congenital defects of the skull base in children.

    OBJECTIVE: To examine imaging findings and methods of endoscopic treatment of congenital skull base defects in children. DESIGN: Retrospective study and case series. SETTING: Academic tertiary care center. patients: Four patients (aged 12 and 14 months and 8 and 13 years) were included from 1995 to 1997. Three presented with a nasal glioma, which was recurrent in 1 case. The fourth patient presented with bacterial meningitis due to a spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid leak. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging were used to locate the defect of the skull base. INTERVENTION: Transnasal endoscopic resection of the glioma or the meningocele, with immediate repair of the skull base defects using free mucosal flaps and/or pediculized mucosal flaps and/or conchal cartilage together with fibrin glue and nasal packing during a 3-week period. RESULTS: None of the 4 patients has experienced recurrent cerebrospinal fluid leaks or postoperative meningitis. CONCLUSIONS: The transnasal endoscopic repair of congenital meningoceles is a reliable technique in select pediatric patients. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging provide information that can be used to help the surgical procedure. ( info)

4/478. Localized vitiligo and frontoethmoidal meningoencephalocele.

    A child with frontoethmoidal meningoencephalocele in whom localized facial vitiligo developed after surgical correction of the encephalocele is presented. The potential role of the ocular disease accompanying the encephalocele in the development of the hypopigmentation is discussed. ( info)

5/478. Idiopathic temporal encephalocele: report of two cases.

    BACKGROUND: Idiopathic brain herniation into the middle ear is a rare condition that represents diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. OBJECTIVE: The authors present here two new cases of idiopathic brain herniation with special clinical presentation and emphasis on radiographic studies, particularly computed tomographic scan and magnetic resonance imaging, which allowed the authors to detect the malformation. RESULTS: The two patients underwent surgical treatment with infratemporal approach and recovered perfectly. ( info)

6/478. Anterior sacral meningocele completely occupied by an epidermoid tumor.

    A 2-year-old girl presented with an anterior sacral meningocele completely occupied by an epidermoid tumor. Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging had shown the meningocele with contents of the same intensity as cerebrospinal fluid. Surgery via a posterior sacral approach disclosed the tumor beneath an unexpected membrane inside the meningocele. Additionally, the presence of pus inside epidermoid tumor suggested that possible episodes of asymptomatic meningitis or other infection might have occurred before treatment, these being the major complication in anterior sacral meningocele. Therefore, we recommend that surgical treatment should be performed at the earliest possible stage in childhood, once the diagnosis is established, and dural plasty carried out to prevent infectious complications. ( info)

7/478. Meningoencephalic herniation into the middle ear.

    Meningoencephalic herniation into the middle ear (MHME) is a rare condition. It can result from ear surgery, infection, head trauma or can be spontaneous. diagnosis requires a high degree of clinical suspicion. The presentation may suggest the condition, but sometimes the intraoperative discovery of an occult meningoencephalic herniation may be a frightening situation. Treatment planning must avoid intra-cranial complications. Transmastoid (TM) and middle cranial fossa (MCF) are alternative or complementary approaches, determined by several factors, including the size and the site of the bony defect and the presence or absence of middle ear infection. Three case reports are presented and a review of the literature is performed, to explain some aspects related to MHME, including aetiopathogenesis, clinical presentation, histopathology, diagnosis and treatment. ( info)

8/478. Craniofacial correction of giant frontoethmoidal encephalomeningocele.

    The surgical treatment of a very large anterior encephalocele in an infant is presented. Because of the large size of the encephalocele, a combined transfacial-transcranial approach was used for correction of the associated intracranial, cranioorbitonasal bone, and facial skin deformities. ( info)

9/478. Spontaneous closure of bony defect in a frontoethmoidal encephalomeningocele patient.

    The frontoethmoidal encephalomeningocele (FEEM) is a congenital herniation of meninges and brain tissue through the skull bony defect at the foramen cecum. The size of the defect may vary from a few millimeters to many. Those patients with a small defect may not always require a risky operation during childhood. We report on an infant whose bony defect has closed spontaneously with definite clinical evidence. It is proved that the skull defect and brain herniation are able to heal naturally, and this affirms an existence of the abortive subtype of FEE. Conservative treatment may be considered in those with a small bony defect, and surgery can be considered later when it is required. ( info)

10/478. Confirmation of arterial deficiencies in a limb with necrosis following clubfoot surgery.

    This study describes postoperative necrosis of the hallux and first ray in a child with clubfoot. Arteriography performed on this child's lower limbs demonstrated, in the operated leg, hypoplasia of both the anterior and posterior tibial arteries and failure of the dorsalis pedis artery to traverse the tarsus and complete the deep plantar arch. Previously, congenital vascular deficiency was suggested to predispose such operated limbs to necrosis. These findings confirm the association between vascular deficiency and necrosis. In this present study, the metabolic demands of wound healing were sufficient in a limb with vascular deficiency to cause localized distal hypoperfusion leading to cyanosis and necrosis of the hallux and medial foot. ( info)
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