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1/20. Hereditary ceruloplasmin deficiency increases advanced glycation end products in the brain.

    We investigated the role of ceruloplasmin in the antioxidative process in the brain in a patient with hereditary ceruloplasmin deficiency (HCD). immunohistochemistry revealed an accumulation of Nepsilon-(carboxymethyl) lysine (CML) in basal ganglia of the HCD brain. in vitro study disclosed that ceruloplasmin inhibited CML formation from glycated proteins through the reaction of Fe2 with H2O2 by Fenton reaction. These data suggest that ceruloplasmin plays an important role in the protection of neurons against oxidative stress associated with iron metabolism. ( info)

2/20. Isolated familial hypomagnesaemia with novel neurological features: causal link or chance concurrence?

    We report a patient with isolated familial hypomagnesaemia with hypocalciuria, a rare congenital disorder of magnesium metabolism. During adolescence the patient developed neurological and ophthalmological features not hitherto reported in this condition, including seizures, myoclonus, and retinal pigmentary degeneration. These suggested the phenotype of mitochondrial disease, which has been occasionally reported in association with hypomagnesaemia, but subsequent investigations of mitochondrial function were normal. The pathogenesis of this unusual neurological and ophthalmological syndrome therefore remains uncertain. ( info)

3/20. A new neurological entity manifesting as involuntary movements and dysarthria with possible abnormal copper metabolism.

    A few patients with an affected CNS involving abnormalities in copper metabolism have been described that do not fit any known nosological entities such as Wilson's disease or Menkes' disease.Three sporadic patients (two men and one woman) were examined with involuntary movements and dysarthria associated with abnormal concentrations of serum copper, serum ceruloplasmin, and urinary copper excretion. The onset of neurological symptoms occurred at the age of 15 to 17 years. The common clinical symptoms were involuntary movements and dysarthria. The involuntary movements included dystonia in the neck, myoclonus in the shoulder, athetosis in the neck, and rapid orobuccal movements. The dysarthria consisted of unclear, slow, and stuttering speech. Two of the three patients did not have dementia. A cousin of the female patient had been diagnosed as having Wilson's disease and had died of liver cirrhosis. Laboratory findings showed a mild reduction in serum copper and ceruloplasmin concentrations, whereas urinary copper excretion was significantly reduced in all three patients. Two of the three patients showed a high signal intensity in the basal ganglia on T2 weighted brain MRI.In conclusion, the unique findings of involuntary movements, dysarthria, and abnormal serum copper and urinary copper concentrations suggest that the three patients may constitute a new clinical entity that is distinct from either Wilson's or Menkes disease. ( info)

4/20. Combined deficiency of xanthine oxidase and sulphite oxidase: a defect of molybdenum metabolism or transport?

    A child is described who presented in the neonatal period with feeding difficulties, severe neurological abnormalities, lens dislocation of the eyes and dysmorphic symptoms of the head. Routine laboratory investigations revealed a decreased serum urate and a positive sulphite reaction of the urine. Subsequent chromatographic examinations showed xanthinuria and increased excretion of S-sulphocysteine and taurine to be present. In addition, high thiosulphate and low sulphate excretions in the urine were observed. xanthine oxidase deficiency was demonstrated in a jejunal biopsy specimen, whereas the excretion of sulphur containing substances was considered to be characteristic of sulphite oxidase deficiency. This new combination of defects may be the result of malfunctioning of both enzymes, possibly caused by alterations in the essential molybdenum containing active centre of the enzymes, which they share in common. ( info)

5/20. Aceruloplasminemia, an inherited disorder of iron metabolism.

    ceruloplasmin, a multi-copper ferroxidase that affects the distribution of tissue iron, has antioxidant effects through the oxidation of ferrous iron to ferric iron. Aceruloplasminemia is an inherited disorder of iron metabolism due to the complete lack of ceruloplasmin ferroxidase activity caused by mutations in the ceruloplasmin gene. It is characterized by iron accumulation in the brain as well as visceral organs. Clinically, the disease consists of the triad of retinal degeneration, diabetes mellitus, and neurological disease, which include ataxia, involuntary movements, and dementia. These symptoms reflect the sites of iron deposition. The unique involvement of the central nervous system distinguishes aceruloplasminemia from other inherited and acquired iron storage disorders. Twenty-one mutations in the ceruloplasmin gene have been reported in 24 families worldwide. In japan, the incidence was estimated to be approximately one per 2,000,000 in the case of non-consanguineous marriages. Excess iron functions as a potent catalyst of biologic oxidation. Previously we showed that an increased iron concentration is associated with increased levels of lipid peroxidation in the serum, cerebrospinal fluid, and erythrocyte membranes. The levels of malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxynonenals, indicators of lipid peroxidation, were also elevated in the basal ganglia and cerebral cortex. Positron emission tomography showed diminished brain metabolism of glucose and oxygen. Enzyme activities in the mitochondrial respiratory chain of the basal ganglia were reduced to approximate 45% and 42%, respectively, for complexes I and IV. These findings suggest that iron-mediated free radicals causes neuronal cell damage through lipid peroxidation and mitochondrial dysfunction in aceruloplasminemia brains. ( info)

6/20. Occipital horn syndrome. Additional radiographic findings in two new cases.

    Occipital horn syndrome, a rare genetic disorder of copper metabolism, was recognized in 2 unrelated patients. Radiographs of these patients at various ages allowed confirmation of previously described radiographic findings. In addition, new radiographic manifestations were encountered. These pathognomonic radiographic findings are presented and the clinical and biochemical features of occipital horn syndrome are reviewed. ( info)

7/20. Hyperphosphatasia with neurologic deficit: a pyridoxine-responsive seizure disorder?

    This report describes the case of a 4 1/2-year-old female with developmental delay and tonic-clonic seizures, persistently elevated serum alkaline phosphatase activity, and low serum pyridoxal 5'-phosphate. Born at term to consanguineous parents, she was dysmorphic and delayed at 5 months. At 11 months, seizures and microcephaly were evident but skeletal and cerebral imaging, karyotyping, and genetic metabolic tests were unremarkable. serum alkaline phosphatase activity, however, was elevated (1.3 /- 0.6 times greater than the upper limit of normal) on seven occasions between 5 months and 4(1/2) years of age. Hyperphosphatasia with neurologic deficit (MIM #239300), a rare autosomal recessive disorder, was diagnosed. The low serum levels of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (6 nmol/L; normal >20 nmol/L) prompted a pyridoxine challenge. A clinically significant but paradoxical response was observed. On electroencephalography, diffuse delta slow waves (1-2 Hz) were observed, suggestive of stage 3 or 4 slow-wave sleep. With daily administration of 100 mg pyridoxine and withdrawal of phenobarbital, seizures were not evident. We suggest that serum alkaline phosphatase should be measured in cases of seizures with paradoxical electroencephalographic response to pyridoxine. Conversely, pyridoxine challenge should be considered in cases of hyperphosphatasia with seizures and neurologic deficit. ( info)

8/20. Effects of cyclosporine A in hyperzincaemia and hypercalprotectinaemia.

    INTRODUCTION: Hyperzincaemia and hypercalprotectinaemia with systemic inflammation, recurrent infections, hepatosplenomegaly, arthritis, anemia, cutaneous inflammation, and failure to thrive is an extremely rare disease and no therapy is reported. AIM: To evaluated the effects of cyclosporine A in hyperzincaemia and hypercalprotectinaemia in terms of serum cytokine level changes before and after treatment. methods: A 10-year-old girl was admitted suffering from pyoderma gangrenosum, hepatosplenomegaly, anemia that was unresponsive to iron supplementation, persistent inflammation, arthritis, and increased serum zinc. The level of serum calprotectin was extremely high; therefore, we diagnosed hyperzincaemia and hypercalprotectinaemia and started cyclosporine A treatment. Twelve cytokines in serum were measured before and one year after treatment. RESULTS: cyclosporine A was very effective. Her skin lesion and joint pain were alleviated and quality of life was markedly improved. c-reactive protein had decreased and anemia had improved. While zinc levels had fallen, calprotectin remained at an extremely high level. Of the cytokines examined, interleukin -6 serum levels had fallen and interleukin -8 showed a marked reduction after treatment. CONCLUSION: cyclosporine A is effective for hyperzincaemia and hypercalprotectinaemia. serum interleukin -8 may be useful in assessing the therapeutic effects of cyclosporine A in hyperzincaemia and hypercalprotectinaemia. ( info)

9/20. acrodermatitis enteropathica.

    acrodermatitis enteropathica results from a defect in zinc metabolism inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. zinc is chelated in the gastrointestinal tract by an oligopeptide that is normally destroyed in the bowel. zinc deficiency results in skin and bowel lesions, as well as alterations in mental status. If the disorder is not treated, death occurs from infection and/or marasmus. blood zinc levels confirm the diagnosis. Dramatic recovery and normal development occur when dietary zinc is supplemented. ( info)

10/20. Metabolic studies in primary tubular hypomagnesaemia-hypokalaemia.

    13 1/2 year old boy with short stature and pubertal delay had infrequent episodes of tetany. Biochemical determinations demonstrated low plasma and high urinary magnesium and potassium levels, hypocalciuria, slightly increased plasma bicarbonate, slightly reduced fractional distal reabsorption of chloride and sodium, high plasma renin activity and high urinary excretion of prostaglandins (E2, F2 alpha). The other parameters of renal functions were normal. Endocrine evaluation of short stature and pubertal delay was normal. Intracellular magnesium and potassium levels in lymphocytes and erythrocytes were within normal limits. Cyclooxygenase blockade with indomethacin 2.5 mg/kg daily during 4 weeks normalized urinary excretion of prostaglandins and corrected in part low plasma and high urinary potassium levels, but had no effect on magnesium, calcium, sodium and chloride handling. These data raise the possibility that tubular hypomagnesaemia-hypokalaemia could be solely explained by a low renal threshold for magnesium. ( info)
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