Cases reported "Mitochondrial Diseases"

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1/102. Progressive mitochondrial disease resulting from a novel missense mutation in the mitochondrial dna ND3 gene.

    We describe a 42-year-old man who presented with a progressive history of epilepsy, stroke-like episodes, bilateral optic atrophy, and cognitive decline. Investigation of his muscle biopsy revealed a specific defect in complex I activity. Subsequent analysis of the mitochondrial genome identified a novel heteroplasmic T10191C mutation in the ND3 gene. The mutation was present at lower levels in blood from the patient and unaffected maternal relatives and is the first pathogenic mitochondrial dna mutation in the ND3 gene to be described. ( info)

2/102. Intermediates of unsaturated fatty acid oxidation are incorporated in triglycerides but not in phospholipids in tissues from patients with mitochondrial beta-oxidation defects.

    The fatty acid composition was determined of liver, skeletal muscle and heart obtained post mortem from patients with medium-chain acyl-coa dehydrogenase deficiency (MCADD), multiple acyl-coa dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD) and very long-chain acyl-coa dehydrogenase deficiency (VLCADD). Increased amounts of 4-decenoic acid 10:1(n-6), 5-dodecenoic acid 12:1(n-7), 5-tetradecenoic acid 14:1(n-9), 5,8-tetradecadienoic acid 14:2(n-6) and 7,10-hexadecadienoic acid 16:2(n-6)--intermediates of unsaturated fatty acid oxidation--were found. Fractionation into different lipid classes showed that these fatty acids were exclusively present in the triglyceride fraction. They could not be detected in the free fatty acid fraction or in the phospholipid fraction. Our results suggest that intermediates of unsaturated fatty acid oxidation that accumulate as a consequence of MCADD, MADD and VLCADD are transported to the endoplasmic reticulum for esterification into neutral glycerolipids. The pattern of accumulation is characteristic for each disease, which makes fatty acid analysis of total lipid of post-mortem tissues a useful tool in the detection of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation defects in patients who died unexpected, for example with sudden infant death syndrome. ( info)

3/102. Mitochondrial tubulopathy: the many faces of mitochondrial disorders.

    We report a rare presentation of mitochondrial disorder in a child with recurrent carpopedal spasms due to hypocalcemia and hypomagnesemia, secondary to renal proximal tubulopathy and possible hypoparathyroidism. At least two mutant mitochondrial dna species were identified, and abnormal mitochondria were found in the muscle and renal biopsy specimens. The case illustrates the spectrum and diversity of mitochondrial presentations, arising because of heteroplasmy of mutations and the type of organs affected. ( info)

4/102. Clinical and laboratory signs of mitochondrial dysfunction secondary to nucleoside analogue antiretroviral therapy are reversible.

    During 27 months treatment with 400 mg didanosine and 80 mg stavudine daily but no protease inhibitor therapy, a 50-y-old hiv-positive woman gradually lost 13 kg in weight, her arms, legs and buttocks decreased in volume and she experienced fatigue and polyneuropathy. Laboratory tests showed slight increases in plasma lactate and liver enzyme levels. Eighteen months after withdrawal of antiretroviral drug, the patient was free of fatigue and polyneuropathy and had regained 7 kg in weight as well as most of the volume of her arms, legs and buttocks. ( info)

5/102. valproic acid triggers acute rhabdomyolysis in a patient with carnitine palmitoyltransferase type II deficiency.

    A 47-year-old man suffering from a bipolar disorder and intermittent myoglobinuria presented with acute rhabdomyolysis with renal failure after starting therapy with valproic acid. On morphological examination, skeletal muscle revealed increased lipid storage. Biochemically, decreased enzyme activity of carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) type II with carnitine levels in the lower limit was found. Genetic analysis detected the common Ser113Leu substitution on one allele of the CPT2 gene. We conclude that valproic acid should be avoided in patients with CPT type II deficiency. ( info)

6/102. autopsy case of autosomal recessive hereditary spastic paraplegia with reference to the muscular pathology.

    An autopsied case of autosomal recessive hereditary spastic paraplegia with severe neurogenic muscular atrophy is described herein. This patient, a 16-year-old woman, presented with gait disturbance. She developed progressive spastic paralysis of the upper and lower limbs and mental deterioration. She became bedridden at approximately 40years of age. dysarthria worsened at 45 years of age. She died of pneumonia at 50 years of age. Her younger sister has shown similar clinical symptoms and became bedridden at 37 years of age. Their parents were second cousins. autopsy revealed a severely atrophic brain, weighing 720 g. The cerebral cortex was thin, and the white matter was extremely reduced in volume. Microscopically, neuronal loss and variable astrogliosis with diffuse spongy changes were evident at the cerebral cortex, thalamic nuclei, basal ganglia and hippocampus. The remaining neurons were atrophied with heavy deposition of lipofuscin. In the spinal cord, the pyramidal tracts as well as the dorsal spinocerebellar tracts were degenerated. In addition, marked loss of the anterior horn cells was seen. Severe neuronal loss of the nucleus gracilis was also detected. In contrast, only mild degeneration of the ventral spinocerebellar tracts and fasciulus cuneatus in the spinal cord were observed. In the frozen sections of skeletal muscle, severe neurogenic atrophy and fatty infiltration were evident. In addition, several rimmed vacuoles were observed in the atrophic fibers, and cytochrome coxidase-deficient fibers were present in part. Reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH)-tetrazolium reductase reaction revealed abnormal accumulation of mitochondria around the center of the non-atrophic muscle fibers. It is suggested that an analysis of mitochondrial function of Japanese autosomal recessive hereditary spastic hemiplegia may provide additional information to clarify the pathogenesis. ( info)

7/102. Mitochondrial disease and stroke.

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: It is well known that some mitochondrial disorders are responsible for ischemic cerebral infarction in young patients. Our purpose was to determine, in this prospective ongoing study, whether ischemic stroke is the only manifestation of a mitochondrial disorder in young patients. methods: patients aged stroke Unit from January 1999 to May 2000 with a diagnosis of ischemic stroke of unknown origin, were included in the study. All of them had full biochemical and hematologic tests, neuroimaging studies, transesophageal echocardiography, and extracranial and transcranial Doppler sonography. Patent foramen ovale was ruled out. lactic acid concentrations were measured after anaerobic exercise of the forearm, and a morphological, biochemical, and molecular study after biceps muscle biopsy was performed. RESULTS: Of the 18 patients so far included, 3 (17%) presented lactic acid hyperproduction after physical exercise, and 6 (33%) showed deficit of the mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes. The molecular analyses have confirmed mitochondrial mutations at base pairs 3243 (characteristic of mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and strokelike episodes [MELAS]), 4216, and 15 928. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that ischemic stroke may be the only manifestation or the initial manifestation of a mitochondrial disorder. ( info)

8/102. Congenital hydranencephalic-hydrocephalic syndrome with proliferative vasculopathy: a possible relation with mitochondrial dysfunction.

    We report the case of a fetus aborted at gestation week 20 because of hydranencephalic-hydrocephalic syndrome. The fetus was the third pregnancy of a nonconsanguineous couple whose first child exhibited congenital hydranencephalic-hydrocephalic syndrome associated with muscle histology findings consistent with mitochondrial cytopathy and deficiency of complexes III and IV of the respiratory chain and whose second pregnancy had terminated in an elective abortion on detection of progressive hydrocephalus at gestation week 19. The third pregnancy had a normal course according to obstetric and ultrasonography examinations performed at gestation weeks 5, 10, and 15, and negative results were obtained in standard serologic and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests for prenatal infections of the mother. However, the ultrasonography examination at gestation week 18 revealed hydrocephalus, in response to which the parents requested an abortion, which was performed at gestation week 20; the fetus was male and with no evident external malformations. Histopathologic studies of the brain and medulla oblongata revealed proliferative vasculopathy (glomeruloid vessels, intracytoplasmic inclusions, and microcalcifications) and intracytoplasmic inclusions in the voluntary muscle. Microbiologic and PCR tests of hepatic and spleen tissue were negative for prenatal infections. In view of the precedent of a sister with mitochondrial dysfunction, these findings raise the pos sibility that at least some cases of familial syndrome of congenital hydranencephalic-hydrocephalic syndrome with proliferative vasculopathy can be attributed to alterations in the mitochondrial respiratory chain. ( info)

9/102. Parkinson's disease associated with impaired oxidative phosphorylation.

    Parkinson's disease may be due to primary or secondary oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) defects. In a 76-year-old man with Parkinson's disease since 1992, slightly but recurrently elevated creatine phosphokinase, recurrently elevated blood glucose, thickening of the left ventricular myocardium, bifascicular block and hypacusis were found. Cerebral MRI showed atrophy, periventricular demyelination, multiple, disseminated, supra- and infratentorial lacunas, and haemosiderin deposits in both posterior horns. Muscle biopsy showed typical features of an OXPHOS defect. Whether the association of Parkinson's disease and impaired OXPHOS was causative or coincidental remains unknown. Possibly, the mitochondrial defect acted as an additional risk factor for Parkinson's disease or the OXPHOS defect worsened the preexisting neurological impairments by a cumulative or synergistic mechanism. In conclusion, this case shows that Parkinson's disease may be associated with a mitochondrially or nuclearly encoded OXPHOS defect, manifesting as hypacusis, myopathy, axonal polyneuropathy, cardiomyopathy and recurrent subclinical ischaemic strokes and haemorrhages. ( info)

10/102. Multiple neonatal deaths due to a homoplasmic mitochondrial dna mutation.

    Mutations of mitochondrial dna (mtDNA) are an important cause of genetic disease. We describe a family with an unusual homoplasmic mutation that resulted in six neonatal deaths and one surviving child with Leigh syndrome. The mother is clinically normal, but a severe biochemical and molecular genetic defect was present in both a fatally affected child and the mother. This family highlights the role of homoplasmic mt-tRNA mutations in genetic disease. ( info)
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