Cases reported "Mitochondrial Myopathies"

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1/250. Congenital hydranencephalic-hydrocephalic syndrome associated with mitochondrial dysfunction.

    We report the case of a 3-year-old girl, the only child of a nonconsanguineous couple without relevant antecedents, who was born with hydranencephalic-hydrocephalic syndrome diagnosed by ultrasonography at gestation week 28, and who was treated during the neonatal period by implantation of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. She showed severe mental retardation, and died at age 4 years following an acute respiratory infection. Due to persistently high lactic acid levels in blood, muscle and skin biopsies were taken. Analysis of muscle biopsies revealed microscopic and ultrastructural alterations typical of mitochondrial disorders, and low levels of complexes III and IV of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. The enzymes of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex showed normal activities in cultured skin fibroblasts. These findings raise the possibility that at least some cases of congenital hydranencephalic-hydrocephalic syndrome may be due to alterations in the mitochondrial respiratory chain. ( info)

2/250. Rapid progression of cardiomyopathy in mitochondrial diabetes.

    Cardiac involvement and its clinical course in a diabetic patient with a mitochondrial tRNA(Leu)(UUR) mutation at position 3243 is reported in a 54-year-old man with no history of hypertension. At age 46, an electrocardiogram showed just T wave abnormalities. At age 49, it fulfilled SV1 RV5 or 6>35 mm with strain pattern. At age 52, echocardiography revealed definite left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy, and abnormally increased mitochondria were shown in biopsied endomyocardial specimens. He was diagnosed as having developed hypertrophic cardiomyopathy associated with the mutation. However, at age 54, SV1 and RV5,6 voltages were decreased, and echocardiography showed diffuse decreased LV wall motion and LV dilatation. Because he had mitochondrial diabetes, the patient's heart rapidly developed hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and then it seemed to be changing to a dilated LV with systolic dysfunction. Rapid progression of cardiomyopathy can occur in mitochondrial diabetes. ( info)

3/250. Diagnostic utility of metabolic exercise testing in a patient with cardiovascular disease.

    Disproportionate exercise limitation in patients with cardiovascular disease is a common problem faced by clinical cardiologists and other physicians. Symptoms may be attributed to psychological factors or hypothetical pathophysiological mechanisms that are difficult to confirm clinically. This case report describes how the use of metabolic exercise testing in a 28 year old woman with morphologically and haemodynamically mild hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and severe exercise limitation led to the diagnosis of an alternative cause for the patient's symptoms, namely a primary disturbance of the mitochondrial respiratory chain probably caused by a nuclear encoded gene defect. ( info)

4/250. Respiratory chain deficiency presenting as recurrent myoglobinuria in childhood.

    myoglobinuria is an abnormal urinary excretion of myoglobin due to an acute destruction of skeletal muscle fibres. Several metabolic diseases are known to account for myoglobinuria including defects of glycolysis and fatty acid oxidation. Here, we report on respiratory chain enzyme deficiency in three unrelated children with recurrent episodes of myoglobinuria and muscle weakness (complex I: one patient, complex IV: two patients). All three patients had generalized hyporeflexia during attacks, a feature which is not commonly reported in other causes of rhabdomyolysis. Studying respiratory chain enzyme activities in cultured skin fibroblasts might help diagnosing this condition, especially when acute rhabdomyolysis precludes skeletal muscle biopsy during and immediately after episodes of myoglobinuria. ( info)

5/250. adult onset limb-girdle type mitochondrial myopathy with a mitochondrial dna np8291 A-to-G substitution.

    We analyzed mitochondrial dna (mtDNA) from 7 patients in four families with adult onset limb-girdle type mitochondrial myopathy to clarify their genetic background. The patients, 2 men and 5 women, showed common clinical features, characterized by isolated skeletal myopathy, high serum creatine kinase level, ragged-red fibers and cytochrome c oxidase-defective fibers. Analysis of muscle biopsy specimens indicated that cytochrome c oxidase activity was decreased relative to that of citrate synthase in 5 of the 7 patients. Southern blotting and direct sequence analyses showed an A-to-G homoplasmic transition at np8291 and intergenic COII/tRNA (Lys) 9bp deletion in all patients. This substitution was detected in only 2 of 600 control individuals including healthy subjects and patients with other neuromuscular disorders; these 2 individuals had diabetes mellitus and myotonic dystrophy, respectively. Consequently, the mtDNA transition at np8291 was a rare polymorphism. However, the 7 patients we studied had identical clinical, pathological, biochemical, and genetic features. Therefore, limb-girdle type mitochondrial myopathy with this rare polymorphism may form a subgroup of adult onset mitochondrial myopathy. ( info)

6/250. Nemaline myopathy and cardiomyopathy.

    A case report is presented in which a 4-year-old male is diagnosed with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, respiratory distress, muscle hypotonia, and psychomotor retardation. Electron microscopic study of skeletal muscle biopsy revealed pathologic changes typical of congenital nemaline myopathy, and biochemical analysis revealed a disorder of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. Therefore a previously undescribed combination of a structural and metabolic myopathy is reported. ( info)

7/250. Gene shifting: a novel therapy for mitochondrial myopathy.

    Mutations in mitochondrial dna (mtDNA) are the most frequent causes of mitochondrial myopathy in adults. In the majority of cases mutant and wild-type mtDNAs coexist, a condition referred to as mtDNA heteroplasmy; however, the relative frequency of each species varies widely in different cells and tissues. Nearly complete segregation of mutant and wild-type mtDNAs has been observed in the skeletal muscle of many patients. In such patients mutant mtDNAs pre-dominate in mature myofibers but are rare or undetectable in skeletal muscle satellite cells cultured in vitro. This pattern is thought to result from positive selection for the mutant mtDNA in post-mitotic myofibers and loss of the mutant by genetic drift in satellite cells. Satellite cells are dormant myoblasts that can be stimulated to re-enter the cell cycle and fuse with existing myofibers in response to signals for muscle growth or repair. We tested whether we could normalize the mtDNA genotype in mature myofibers in a patient with mitochondrial myopathy by enhancing the incorporation of satellite cells through regeneration following injury or muscle hypertrophy, induced by either eccentric or concentric resistance exercise training. We show a remarkable increase in the ratio of wild-type to mutant mtDNAs, in the proportion of muscle fibers with normal respiratory chain activity and in muscle fiber cross-sectional area after a short period of concentric exercise training. These data show that it is possible to reverse the molecular events that led to expression of metabolic myopathy and demonstrate the effectiveness of this form of 'gene shifting' therapy. ( info)

8/250. Early onset of diabetes mellitus associated with the mitochondrial dna T14709C point mutation: patient report and literature review.

    We report a family in which a mother and son were affected with diabetes mellitus and myopathy characterized by ragged red fibers and suggestive of mitochondrial disease. Mitochondrial dna (mtDNA) analysis of dna isolated from peripheral blood showed a T-->C point mutation at nucleotide position 14709, in the transfer rna gene for glutamic acid. We review the association of diabetes and mtDNA mutations. This child's case is unusual because of the early onset of diabetes, which is more typical of mtDNA deletions. ( info)

9/250. A new mitochondrial dna mutation (A3288G) in the tRNA(Leu(UUR)) gene associated with familial myopathy.

    We describe a family with a maternally inherited mitochondrial myopathy and an A3288G mutation in the tRNA(Leu(UUR)) gene. The proband had muscle cramping and mild weakness while her brother had long-standing limb and respiratory muscle weakness and her daughter had elevated serum CK. The mutation, which was nearly homoplasmic in muscle and heteroplasmic in blood, affects the TpsiC loop at a conserved site and was not found in 107 controls. This report confirms the frequent association of tRNA(Leu(UUR)) mutations with respiratory muscle involvement and bolsters the concept that tRNA(Leu(UUR)) is a hotspot for mtDNA mutations. ( info)

10/250. A stop-codon mutation in the human mtDNA cytochrome c oxidase I gene disrupts the functional structure of complex IV.

    We have identified a novel stop-codon mutation in the mtDNA of a young woman with a multisystem mitochondrial disorder. Histochemical analysis of a muscle-biopsy sample showed virtually absent cytochrome c oxidase (COX) stain, and biochemical studies confirmed an isolated reduction of COX activity. sequence analysis of the mitochondrial-encoded COX-subunit genes identified a heteroplasmic G-->A transition at nucleotide position 6930 in the gene for subunit I (COX I). The mutation changes a glycine codon to a stop codon, resulting in a predicted loss of the last 170 amino acids (33%) of the polypeptide. The mutation was present in the patient's muscle, myoblasts, and blood and was not detected in normal or disease controls. It was not detected in mtDNA from leukocytes of the patient's mother, sister, and four maternal aunts. We studied the genetic, biochemical, and morphological characteristics of transmitochondrial cybrid cell lines, obtained by fusing of platelets from the patient with human cells lacking endogenous mtDNA (rho0 cells). There was a direct relationship between the proportion of mutant mtDNA and the biochemical defect. We also observed that the threshold for the phenotypic expression of this mutation was lower than that reported in mutations involving tRNA genes. We suggest that the G6930A mutation causes a disruption in the assembly of the respiratory-chain complex IV. ( info)
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