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1/10. prenatal diagnosis and treatment of holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency.

    Holocarboxylase synthetase is one of two enzymes known to be involved in the metabolism of biotin. It catalyses the fixation of biotin to inactive apocarboxylases yielding active carboxylases. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to multiple carboxylase deficiency which is fatal in the absence of prompt diagnosis and treatment with biotin. In a pregnancy at risk for deficiency of holocarboxylase synthetase prenatal diagnosis was performed by assay of the enzyme in amniocytes. The Km for biotin was 62.8 nM which was 12 times the control value of 5.0 nM. The Vmax was 2 per cent of the control value. This was confirmed by assay of the activity of propionyl CoA carboxylase (20-26 per cent control), 3-methylcrotonyl CoA carboxylase (14-19 per cent control) and pyruvate carboxylase (12-30 per cent control) and demonstration of biotin responsiveness in vitro. All carboxylase activities were restored to 51-58 per cent of control when amniocytes were cultured in medium containing 1 microM biotin. Diagnosis was ultimately confirmed by assay of holocarboxylase synthetase in lymphocytes from the infant after birth. The Km for biotin of the holocarboxylase synthetase of the infant was 60.3 nM while that of a parallel control was 6.9 nM. Prenatal treatment of the mother with biotin led to a concentration of biotin of 240 nM in the serum of the infant at birth that was four times the Km of the enzyme for biotin. The infant was clinically well at birth, and organic acid analysis of the blood and urine revealed no accumulation of the characteristic metabolites. ( info)

2/10. biotinidase deficiency: result of treatment with biotin from age 12 years.

    A boy with severe symptoms of biotinidase deficiency diagnosed at the age of 12 years showed a remarkable improvement of his neurological picture and normalization of brain magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities when prescribed oral biotin. ( info)

3/10. Biotin responsive multiple carboxylase deficiency presenting as diabetic ketoacidosis.

    multiple carboxylase deficiency (MCD) is a rare inherited metabolic disease of biotin dependency due to deficiency of holocarboxylase synthetase (HCS) or biotinidase deficiency. A 30-month-old female patient who presented with the initial features of diabetic ketoacidosis (severe metabolic acidosis, ketosis, and hyperglycemia), lactic acidemia, moderate hyperammonemia, and generalized organic aciduria is described. Associated symptoms and signs included erythematous skin rashes, alopecia and developmental delay. The patient responded dramatically to treatment with biotin (10 mg/day) showing normalization of clinical symptoms and most biochemical abnormalities. Based on the urine organic profile by gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry (GC/MS), the diagnosis of MCD was made. A plasma tandem mass study confirmed this diagnosis. The biotinase activity in serum was normal, indicating that this was a rare case of late-onset HCS deficiency. ( info)

4/10. Dermatologic signs of biotin deficiency leading to the diagnosis of multiple carboxylase deficiency.

    The biotin-responsive, multiple carboxylase deficiencies are autosomal recessively inherited disorders of metabolism in which biotin-dependent carboxylases show diminished activity. This results in an accumulation of organic acids in the urine. The clinical picture involves the nervous system, skin, respiratory system, digestive system, and immune system. The disorder has a good prognosis if biotin therapy is introduced early. If not, it can result in irreversible damage to the central nervous system and early death from metabolic acidosis. We report a 4-year-old girl with unexplained seizures that did not respond well to anticonvulsants. The development of skin problems, which histologically could match the diagnosis of a nutritional dermatitis, together with the fact that the child was constantly eating without gaining weight, led us to the diagnosis of a metabolic disorder. The accumulation of organic acids in the urine suggested the possibility of a biotin deficiency. With biotin therapy the skin problems resolved completely. The seizures also diminished. This case shows that in young children with unexplained seizures that do not respond well to classic anticonvulsant therapy, the possibility of biotin deficiency should always be considered. This article also includes a thorough review of the skin manifestations and other problems caused by biotin deficiency. ( info)

5/10. Biotin-responsive multiple carboxylase deficiency in an 8-year-old boy with normal serum biotinidase and fibroblast holocarboxylase-synthetase activities.

    An 8-year-old boy with late onset multiple carboxylase deficiency is described. biotinidase deficiency and holocarboxylase-synthetase deficiency have been excluded. A very slow biochemical response to biotin was found. The decrease in urinary organic acid excretion followed first-order kinetics with a half-life of about 50 days. The initially low carboxylase activities in thrombocytes were increased but not normalized after 3 months of treatment. ( info)

6/10. Ocular aspects in biotinidase deficiency. Clinical and genetic original studies.

    There are two distinct forms of multiple carboxylase deficiency. A neonatal onset form is due to deficiency of holocarboxylase-synthetase. A later onset form in which neurological abnormalities are seen as well as those of the skin and hair is due to biotinidase deficiency. It is the purpose of this report to describe a patient with biotinidase deficiency who presents bilateral optic atrophy. The dosage of biotinidase enzyme in the patient's serum and in other members of his family confirms the autosomal recessive transmission of this condition. ( info)

7/10. Neurological deterioration and lactic acidemia in biotinidase deficiency. A treatable condition mimicking Leigh's disease.

    A six-month-old girl with chronic lactic acidosis and neurological deterioration is described, who underwent a sudden severe decompensation during her initial neurological investigations. She responded dramatically to biotin therapy. The diagnosis of late onset multiple carboxylase deficiency due to biotinidase deficiency was confirmed. This entity should be considered in the differential diagnosis of hyperlactacidemic encephalopathies. ( info)

8/10. multiple carboxylase deficiency due to deficiency of biotinidase.

    A patient with biotinidase deficiency was studied in whom the first admission to hospital for acidosis occurred at 5 years of age. Sensorineural abnormalities of the optic and auditory nerves antedated diagnosis and treatment with biotin, and these sensory losses did not resolve with treatment. The other clinical manifestations of the disease were highly responsive to biotin. Biotinidase was assayed using 14C-labeled natural substrate. The activity in the patient approximated 1% of the control level. ( info)

9/10. biotinidase deficiency: early neurological presentation.

    Three patients with biotinidase deficiency are described. Two presented at eight weeks of age with anticonvulsant-resistant fits, developmental delay and hypotonia. Treatment has been effective. The third developed ataxia and alopecia at 14 months and died suddenly at 19 months of age. In all three cases the diagnosis was not considered quickly enough. biotinidase deficiency is a treatable cause of severe neurological problems. ( info)

10/10. Resolution of subependymal cysts in neonatal holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency.

    holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency is typically a biotin responsive disorder that presents with lactic acidosis, tachypnea, temperature instability, and shock in neonates (Briones et al.1989 and Fuchshuber et al. 1992). The primary defect in cases studied to date appears to be the decreased affinity of HCS for its substrate, biotin (Gompertz et al. 1971). Supplemental biotin can provide sufficient substrate to increase HCS enzymatic function and thereby permit biotinylation of the four carboxylase apoenzymes (Briones et al. 1989). We report an infant with HCS deficiency who presented with lactic acidosis, shock, and hypertonia. Subependymal cysts were identified on cranial ultrasound and subsequently confirmed by MRI. Six months following biotin supplementation, she is developmentally normal and MRI of the brain shows complete resolution of the cysts. ( info)
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