Cases reported "Multiple Sclerosis"

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1/1213. Disorders in cerebellar ocular motor control. II. Macrosaccadic oscillation. An oculographic, control system and clinico-anatomical analysis.

    A distinctive cerebellar ocular motor disorder, macrosaccadic oscillation, evolved simultaneously with an acute cerebellar syndrome in 4 patients, 2 with haemorrhagic metastatic melanoma deep in the vermis, a third with a presumed cerebellar haematoma and a fourth with focal demyelinating disease. Ocular oscillations were conjugate, horizontal, symmetrical, occurred in bursts of several seconds duration, had amplitudes of 30 degrees to 50 degrees, and were evoked whenever the patient attempted to shift visual fixation or pursue a moving target. Photo-electric recordings in one patient with tumour defined features of this disorder of saccadic eye movement: (i) oscillation was composed of saccades, (ii) frequency was 2 Hz, (iii) bursts occurred with amplitude first increasing and then decreasing, (iv) intervals between beginnings of saccades averaged 260 ms and (v) eye position did not exhibit systematic drift during the intersaccadic period. These features documented the inreased gain and instability of the visually guided saccadic system. By using increased feed-forward gain in a sampled-data control model we simulated the pattern of macrosaccadic oscillation. We belive that the acute loss of the calibrator function of the cerebellum accounts for the gain abnormality underlying macrosaccadic oscillation. ( info)

2/1213. Chronic steadily progressive central and peripheral predominantly motor demyelination, involving the cranial nerves, responsive to immunoglobulins.

    The association of central and peripheral demyelination was reported previously. Most of the cases refer to central chronic relapsing demyelination with clinical criteria for multiple sclerosis associated with later signs of peripheral nerve involvement. Other authors, described central lesions in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy and in guillain-barre syndrome, as a seldom occurrence. We report a patient in which a chronic steadily progressive central and peripheral predominantly motor nervous system demyelination, involving the cranial nerves, was identified. The patient improved after intravenous immunoglobulin suggesting an immune-mediated mechanism. To our knowledge this presentation was not described before. ( info)

3/1213. Cranial polyneuropathies in multiple sclerosis: case report and literature review.

    Although cranial neuropathies are common disorders in multiple sclerosis patients, multiple cranial nerve involvement is an unusual occurrence. Correlation of clinical symptoms with magnetic resonance imaging evidence of demyelinating central nervous system lesions can confirm the diagnosis. The authors report on the case of a 43-year-old woman who initially was thought to have suffered a brainstem infarct but, in fact, had developed multiple cranial nerve functional deficits. Treatment of multiple sclerosis remains primarily supportive in nature, with corticosteroids used for acute exacerbations and chronic progression. ( info)

4/1213. A multiple sclerosis-like illness in a man harboring the mtDNA 14484 mutation.

    In most cases of Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) the only clinical manifestation is visual loss. A multiple sclerosis-like illness has been infrequently reported in association with LHON. Most patients are women harboring the mtDNA 11778 mutation. We present a young man with clinical and paraclinical evidence of a demyelinating process with profound bilateral visual loss who harbored the mtDNA 14484 mutation associated with LHON. ( info)

5/1213. Acquired convergence-evoked pendular nystagmus in multiple sclerosis.

    Nystagmus seen only with convergence is unusual. We describe four cases of acquired convergence-evoked pendular nystagmus in patients with multiple sclerosis. The nystagmus was horizontal and asymmetric in all patients. eye movement recordings in one subject showed a conjugate rather than a convergent-divergent relationship of the phase of movement between the two eyes. All patients had evidence of optic neuropathy and cerebellar dysfunction. Occlusion of either eye during fixation of near targets led to divergent drift of the covered eye and a decrease in nystagmus. Intravenous scopolamine reduced nystagmus in one patient. Base-in prisms alleviated symptoms of oscillopsia at near and improving reading visual acuity. Convergence-evoked pendular nystagmus may be more common than currently appreciated, particularly among patients with multiple sclerosis. ( info)

6/1213. Immunoadsorption--a new therapeutic possibility for multiple sclerosis?

    A 46 year old woman suffers from chronic progressive multiple sclerosis. She was diagnosed in 1993. Because of many complications seen in conservative treatment, plasma exchange was started. The expanded disability status scale by Kurtzke could be improved but the interval between the treatments became shorter and shorter. It was therefore decided to commence protein A immunoadsorption treatment. With this treatment the patient shows good and stable improvement in neurological and functional status with an acceptable treatment frequency of once every 3 weeks. ( info)

7/1213. Ankylosing spondylitis and multiple sclerosis.

    Ankylosing spondylitis can be associated with extra-articular involvement. Besides internal and ocular complications, neurological manifestations such as single root lesions, compression of the myelum or the cauda equina syndrome have also been described. We present a patient with ankylosing spondylitis who developed a monophasic myelopathy resembling multiple sclerosis. literature data show no conclusive evidence for an increased association of ankylosing spondylitis and multiple sclerosis. However, a monophasic myelopathy may be a separate neurological manifestation associated with ankylosing spondylitis. ( info)

8/1213. Quantitative follow-up of patients with multiple sclerosis using MRI: technical aspects.

    A highly reproducible automated procedure for quantitative analysis of serial brain magnetic resonance (MR) images was developed for use in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). The intracranial cavity (ICC) was identified on standard dual-echo spin-echo brain MR images using a supervised automated procedure. MR images obtained from one MS patient at 24 time points in the course of a 1-year follow-up were aligned with the images of one of the time points. Next, the contents of the ICC in each MR exam were segmented into four tissues, using a self-adaptive statistical algorithm. Misclassifications due to partial voluming were corrected using a combination of morphologic operators and connectivity criteria. Finally, a connectivity detection algorithm was used to separate the tissue classified as lesions into individual entities. Registration, classification of the contents of the ICC, and identification of individual lesions are fully automatic. Only identification of the ICC requires operator interaction. In each MR exam, the program estimated volumes for the ICC, gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), white matter lesions (WML), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The reproducibility of the system was superior to that of supervised segmentation, as evidenced by the coefficient of variation: CSF supervised 45.9% vs. automated 7.7%, GM 16.0% vs. 1.4%, WM 15.7% vs. 1.3%, and WML 39.5% vs 52.0%. Our results demonstrate that this computerized procedure allows routine reproducible quantitative analysis of large serial MRI data sets. ( info)

9/1213. Dissociation of 'on-line' and 'off-line' visuomotor control of the arm by focal lesions in the cerebellum and brainstem.

    Visuomotor control of the arm was assessed in a single case study of a subject with focal lesions in the cerebellum and brainstem. A dissociation between 'on-line' and 'off-line' visuomotor control was revealed: impairments in 'on-line' visuomotor control included inaccuracy of tracking velocity, increase in spatial pointing variability and a delay in simple reaction time; whereas the patient was able to adapt to a gain change in 'off-line' visual feedback during a pointing task, and his adaptation was less affected than that of control subjects by trial-to-trial random fluctuations in 'off-line' visual feedback. We conclude that focal damage in the cerebellar peduncles may be principally responsible for this dissociation. ( info)

10/1213. Is there a role for NK cells in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis? A case study.

    We report on a patient with multiple sclerosis (MS) in which we documented an elevated percentage of activated CD56 natural killer (NK) cells in peripheral blood lymphocytes. NK cells from the patient lysed preferentially glioblastoma but not neuroblastoma cells. Killing of glial cells was not inhibited by a monoclonal antibody against a monomorphic determinant of MHC class I gene products. Lymphokine activated killer (LAK) cell function in the MS patient was comparable to that of controls. Analysis of cytokine production during resting or activated states demonstrated that this patient had a deficit in the ability to secrete T cell derived cytokines associated with increased production of TNFalpha, a product of NK cells. Taken together, these data indicate a possible involvement of NK cells in the pathogenesis of MS. ( info)
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