Cases reported "Muscle Hypotonia"

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1/569. Neuropathy in two cobalamin-deficient breast-fed infants of vegetarian mothers.

    We describe the electrophysiological findings in 2 infants with deficient cobalamin intake. After normal development, psychomotor regression appeared after the 6th month, leading to severe hypotonia and apathy before the 12th month. Electrodiagnostic evaluation showed sensory neuropathy in both cases, associated with motor neuropathy in 1 case. Thus, in an acquired floppy infant syndrome, electrophysiological signs of peripheral neuropathy contributed to the diagnosis of a curable metabolic disorder. ( info)

2/569. Partial lipodystrophy presenting with myopathy.

    A girl with partial lipodystrophy is described presenting with muscle weakness and developmental delay several years before lipoatrophy became apparent. The patient subsequently developed epilepsy, fatty liver, secondary amenorrhoea, hirsutism, insulin-resistant diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidaemia, and hypothyroidism. She remains weak with poor exercise tolerance. This case illustrates an atypical presentation of the Barraquer-Simon syndrome. ( info)

3/569. A family with an atonic variant of paroxysmal kinesigenic choreoathetosis and hypercalcitoninemia.

    We report a family with an incompletely atonic variant of paroxysmal kinesigenic choreoathetosis (PKC). Three members of the family experienced attacks of muscle weakness which resembled the choreoathetotic attacks that occur in PKC in terms of their kinesigenicity and duration, clarity of consciousness during the attacks, good therapeutic response to low doses of phenytoin, and familial transmission, but differed from choreoathetotic attacks in PKC in that they were atonic. All three affected individuals were hypercalcitoninemic. ( info)

4/569. Congenital hypomyelinating neuropathy: two patients with long-term follow-up.

    The authors report the long-term prospective follow-up of two unrelated females with congenital hypomyelinating neuropathy (CHN) and review previously reported cases. The authors' first patient presented with neonatal hypotonia and extremely slow nerve conduction velocities. sural nerve biopsy revealed profound hypomyelination, without inflammation or evidence of myelin breakdown. She is now 9 years of age, and her motor function has continued to improve. Follow-up nerve-conduction velocities are unchanged. The authors' second patient presented at 5 months with hypotonia. Nerve-conduction velocities were extremely slow, and sural nerve biopsy revealed severe hypomyelination, with no inflammation or evidence of myelin breakdown. She is now 5 years of age and has also demonstrated improved motor function. Repeated nerve-conduction velocities are unchanged. Both patients have normal cognitive development. Molecular genetic analysis in Patient 2 disclosed a point mutation in the myelin protein zero gene; this same point mutation has been reported in three other patients diagnosed with Dejerine-Sottas syndrome (DSS) but has never been reported in a patient with CHN. Although CHN is a distinct clinical entity, it may share similar genetic features with DSS. ( info)

5/569. Acute barium intoxication following ingestion of ceramic glaze.

    A case of deliberate overdose of barium sulphide in a psychiatric setting is presented, with resulting flaccid paralysis, malignant arrhythmia, respiratory arrest and severe hypokalaemia, but ultimately with complete recovery. The degree of paralysis appears to be related directly to serum barium levels. The value of early haemodialysis, particularly with respiratory paralysis and hypokalaemia, is emphasised. ( info)

6/569. A severely affected infant with absence of cysteinyl leukotrienes in cerebrospinal fluid: further evidence that leukotriene c4-synthesis deficiency is a new neurometabolic disorder.

    leukotrienes are potent oxygenated metabolites derived from the 5-lipoxygenase pathway of arachidonic acid metabolism. They comprise the cysteinyl leukotrienes (LTC4, LTD4, LTE4) and LTB4. The rate limiting step in the formation of cysteinyl leukotrienes is the conversion of LTA4 to LTC4 catalyzed by the enzyme LTC4 synthase. Recently, the first inborn error of leukotriene synthesis, LTC4-synthesis deficiency, has been identified in a patient with a fatal developmental syndrome. We report on an additional infant presenting with severe muscular hypotonia, symmetrical extension in the lower extremities and psychomotor retardation who died at the age of 6 months. Despite intensive investigations no specific diagnosis could be made. leukotrienes were subsequently analyzed in the cerebrospinal fluid. Concentrations of LTC4, LTD4 and LTE4 were below the detection limit (< 5 pg/ml) whereas LTB4 was found to be in the upper normal range. The absence of cysteinyl leukotrienes with normal LTB4 concentration in cerebrospinal fluid is unique and seems to be pathognomonic for LTC4-synthesis deficiency. Our patient most likely represents the second case described so far with this condition. This report provides further evidence that LTC4-synthesis deficiency represents a new neurometabolic disorder. ( info)

7/569. Neonatal type of nonketotic hyperglycinemia.

    Two infants with the neonatal type of nonketotic hyperglycinemia that had manifested as early neonatal consciousness disturbance are presented. Transient hyperammonemia had been detected in both initially. High levels of glycine in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid disturb the nervous system, causing variable manifestations of this disease. Both cases were complicated by intracranial hemorrhage, which has never before been reported. After treatment with sodium benzoate and dextromethorphan, some neurologic improvement was observed, although the glycine levels did not lower. Recent clinical trials are reviewed, and because of the unfavorable outcomes, the special need for prenatal diagnosis is highlighted. ( info)

8/569. Necrotizing encephalopathy and macrocephaly with mitochondrial complex I deficiency.

    A neonate presented in the first weeks after birth with vomiting. He was unresponsive, with hypotonia, macrocephaly, and lactic acidosis. The cranial computed tomographic scan revealed a hypodense brain, with increased brain volume and extensive cerebral edema. He died at 6 weeks of age; postmortem examination revealed necrotizing encephalopathy with marked brain edema, spongiosis, thalamic necrosis, and basal ganglia calcifications. Enzyme studies of the mitochondrial respiratory chain revealed complex I deficiency in both muscle and liver. ( info)

9/569. Unknown syndrome in two male sibs with hypotonia, ptosis, hand malformations, 2/3 toes syndactyly, and mental retardation.

    We report two brothers from nonconsanguineous parents who share hypotonia, ptosis, high arched palate, camptodactyly, fifth fingers clinodactyly, 2/3 toes syndactyly and psychomotor retardation. Differential diagnosis, such as the Ohdo syndrome, the Morillo-Cucci syndrome, the Marden-Walker-like syndrome, and the Frydman syndrome and discussed. ( info)

10/569. The novel contiguous gene syndrome of myotubular myopathy (MTM1), male hypogenitalism and deletion in Xq28:report of the first familial case.

    Hu et al. (1996) and Laporte et al. (1997) recently proposed a novel contiguous gene syndrome of myotubular myopathy, abnormal male genital development and deletion in Xq28. We studied a family where two male infants, both deceased, had myotubular myopathy and intersexual genitalia. Using FISH we detected in the mother a hemizygous deletion including the myotubularin gene MTM1 and F18 (a gene of yet unknown function). dna studies with STR-markers (short tandem repeats) within and flanking the deleted segment confirmed the deletion in the family and were used for prenatal diagnosis. Our findings confirm the existence of this novel contiguous gene syndrome and support that the deletion of the F18 gene, or a neighboring gene, may cause ambiguous genitalia or severe hypospadias in males. The mother had low muscle power and marked menstrual irregularities which may indicate that she is a manifesting carrier and that the deletion may include a gene (F18 or other) for gonadal function in females. ( info)
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