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1/321. budd-chiari syndrome associated with factor v leiden mutation: a report of 6 patients.

    budd-chiari syndrome is characterized by hepatic venous outflow obstruction. Although myeloproliferative disorders are usually responsible for this severe thrombotic disorder, deficiency or dysfunction of the natural anticoagulants can be involved. Resistance to activated protein c caused by factor v Leiden mutation has been recently identified as a major cause of thrombophilia. We report 6 patients with budd-chiari syndrome associated with factor v Leiden mutation combined with another acquired thrombophilic state (myeloproliferative disorder and lupus anticoagulant in 3 cases) and without another thrombophilic disorder in the other 3 cases. We conclude that factor v Leiden mutation should be evaluated in any case of hepatic vein occlusion because the prevalence of this mutation in the general population is high. ( info)

2/321. Spontaneous remission of anemia associated with a myelodysplastic syndrome with disease evolution into a myeloproliferative state.

    A red cell transfusion-dependent patient with a myelodysplastic syndrome had progression into a myeloproliferative state with thrombocytosis. At the same time, the patient became transfusion independent, and a subsequent bone marrow examination revealed a previously undetected loss of chromosome 7. The patient remains well with control of thrombocytosis by anagrelide therapy. ( info)

3/321. trisomy 21 associated transient neonatal myeloproliferation in the absence of Down's syndrome.

    Although usually associated with Down's syndrome, transient neonatal myeloproliferation (TMD) can occur in the absence of a constitutional trisomy 21. This report describes two such cases, both of whom had a trisomy 21 restricted to clonal cells. Unlike in previous such reported cases, spontaneous morphological, cytogenetic, and molecular remission in both cases was followed by re-emergence, in one case, of an evolved clone with a more malignant phenotype which required pharmacological intervention. awareness that trisomy 21 bearing leukaemia in the neonatal period can be transient even in the absence of Down's syndrome is important to prevent unnecessary treatment. Equally, such cases require indefinite follow up as a proportion may have a recurrence which may require treatment. ( info)

4/321. Translocation (4;15)(p16;q24): a novel reciprocal translocation in a patient with BCR/ABL negative myeloproliferative syndrome progressing to blastic phase.

    A patient with BCR/ABL negative myeloproliferative syndrome with a 46,XY,del(3)(q21), t(4;15)(p16;q24) karyotype is described. fluorescence in situ hybridization performed with chromosomes 4 and 15 painting probes confirmed a novel reciprocal (4;15) translocation. The absence of crkl tyrosine phosphorylation, no activation of the abl kinase as measured by autophosphorylation, and a normal-size abl transcript suggest an alternative mechanism for leukemogenesis to that operative in Ph positive BCR/ABL positive chronic myeloid leukemia. A number of genes potentially relevant to tumorigenesis, some involving the ras signaling pathway, map to the 4p16 and 15q24 chromosome regions. ( info)

5/321. ALL- and CML-type BCR/ABL mRNA transcripts in chronic myelogenous leukemia and related disorders.

    Using the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, we investigated acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL)-type, and chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML)-type BCR/ABL mRNA expression in a total of 66 patients with chronic myeloproliferative disorder (CMPD). Thirty-six of 37 patients with CML were positive for CML-type mRNA. Thirteen of the 25 CML had ALL-type mRNA expression. The patients with ET, PV, MF, and CMML did not have any detectable BCR/ABL expression. The most remarkable finding was that two patients, a Ph1-positive CML patient and a patient with a presumptive diagnosis of essential thrombocythemia (ET), showed only ALL-type chimeric mRNA expression. ( info)

6/321. Alloimmunization after blood transfusion in patients with hematologic and oncologic diseases.

    BACKGROUND: Because of intensive marrow depression and improved survival, patients with hematologic and oncologic malignancies are dependent on transfusion for a longer period. It has been advocated that these patients should receive blood that is matched for blood group antigens other than ABO and D. A retrospective study was performed on the rate of alloimmunization against red cell antigens in 564 patients with malignant hematologic diseases over a period of 10 years. STUDY DESIGN AND methods: Records of transfusion and immunohematologic studies of all patients (n = 1066) with malignant myeloproliferative and lymphoproliferative diseases diagnosed between 1987 and 1996 at one hospital were collected from the hospital computer blood bank files. Transfusions were correlated with antibody formation. Factors affecting this correlation were analyzed. RESULTS: Seventy-one antibodies were found in 51 patients. The overall immunization rate was 9.0 percent. Fifty percent of antibodies were formed after 13 units had been transfused. Once a patient had formed an antibody, the probability of additional antibodies increased 3.3-fold. Anti-c, anti-E, and anti-K composed the majority of antibodies found. Four patients formed Rh system antibodies after incompatible platelet transfusions. patients who underwent intensive chemotherapy formed antibodies at a much lower rate than other patients. More than 40 percent of antibodies became undetectable after the first detection. No difficulty was encountered in finding compatible blood for these patients. CONCLUSIONS: antibody formation in hematologic malignancies is comparable to that in other diseases requiring multiple blood transfusions. Extensive antigen matching before transfusion of patients with hematologic and oncologic malignancies is not necessary and leads to increased costs. ( info)

7/321. A group of previously not recognized cytogenetic abnormalities in myeloid hematological malignancies.

    We have identified a group of previously not reported chromosome abnormalities related to myeloid hematological malignancies. Cases 1 and 2 were observed to have an additional i(4)(p10) as the sole anomaly with similar clinical features of myeloid disorders; that is, acute nonlymphocytic leukemia (ANLL-M2) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)-refractory anemia with an excess of blasts in transformation, respectively. fluorescence in situ hybridization studies with the use of a 4p-specific microdissection probe further confirmed the presence of an i(4)(p10) in these patients. Case 3 was diagnosed with ANLL-M1 and had an additional i(8)(p10) as the only change, also confirmed by a whole-chromosome painting procedure. In cases 4-6, deletions of 18q at breakpoints q12, q23, and q21 were identified as the sole anomaly in a myeloproliferative disorder (MPD), MPD, and MDS, respectively. X-autosome translocations other than t(X;10)(p11;p11) and t(X;11)(q13;q23) have not been reported as recurrent or primary changes in hematological disorders. In the present study, a t(X;9)(q26;q22) and t(X;5)(q13;q33) as the sole anomaly were found in cases 7 and 8, respectively. Both cases had the same diagnosis of MDS. Considering that trisomies 4 ( 4) and 8 ( 8) are common anomalies in MDS and ANLL, our findings strongly indicate that amplification of genes on 4p and 8p, but not on 4q and 8q, may play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of MDS and ANLL. In addition, genes on 18q12-23 and on Xq13-26 may be involved in the pathogenesis of myeloid disorders. ( info)

8/321. thrombocytosis with sideroblastic erythropoiesis: a mixed myeloproliferative myelodysplastic syndrome.

    Some patients with haematological neoplasms have features which overlap between a myelodysplastic syndrome and a myeloproliferative disorder. Two such patients are reported, both having sideroblastic erythropoiesis and thrombocytosis and one sequentially developing features of atypical chronic myeloid leukaemia, idiopathic myelofibrosis and acute megakaryoblastic leukaemia. The prevalence of thrombocytosis among cases of refractory anaemia with ring sideroblasts may be as high as 15-20% and has implications for choice of therapy. ( info)

9/321. Cutaneous ulcers associated with hydroxyurea therapy in myeloproliferative disorders.

    hydroxyurea (HU) is an established chemotherapeutic agent in the treatment of myeloproliferative disorders (MPD) including chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), polycythemia vera and essential thrombocythemia (ET). It is well tolerated, has minimal toxicities, and produces hematological response in most patients treated. Side effects of hydroxyurea are few and include myelosuppression, oral ulcers and skin rashes. Cutaneous toxicity is rare. This study aims to describe the occurrence of cutaneous ulcerations attributed to HU therapy in patients with MPD, and familiarize the oncology community with this unusual but disturbing toxicity of HU. Five patients with MPD receiving HU therapy at doses of 0.5 to 4 g/day who developed skin ulceration were reviewed (median age was 53 years). Three patients had philadelphia positive CML, and two had ET. Cutaneous ulcers developed after a long period of HU therapy (median 36 months, range 7 to 96 months). The time after discontinuation of HU to the healing of the ulcers was 1 to 4 months. Ulcers developed mainly in the lower extremities particularly adjacent to the malleoli, indicating a possible relation to trauma. In conclusion, cutaneous ulceration represents a poorly recognized and rare HU-related side effect. Discontinuation of HU usually leads to slow resolution of the ulcers over several months. The etiology of this rare side effect remains poorly understood. ( info)

10/321. Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and mesangial sclerosis associated with myeloproliferative disorders.

    The myeloproliferative disorders (MPDs) are clonal disorders of the hematopoietic stem cell and classified as polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythemia (ET), or agnogenic myeloid metaplasia (AMM), depending on the main hematopoietic lineage involved. Primary renal parenchymal lesions are not commonly reported in these cases. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 138 consecutive patients with MPD to determine the frequency of renal parenchymal complications. Five patients (3.6%) (two PV, two ET, one AMM) were found to have focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) and diffuse mesangial sclerosis, presenting as proteinuria in all the cases and progressing to chronic renal failure in two cases. A possible common risk factor was a high platelet count, because abnormal platelet activation in MPD has been shown to contribute to the development of glomerulosclerosis. The pathophysiologic basis of our observations and the implications in management of MPD patients remain to be studied. ( info)
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