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1/2. Primary bilateral mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma of the breast with atypical ductal hyperplasia and localized amyloidosis. A case report and review of the literature.

    Primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the breast is a rare disease. Primary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma is even rarer, and bilateral involvement is exceptional. We describe a case of primary bilateral breast mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma with bilateral atypical ductal hyperplasia and bilateral localized amyloidosis in a 64-year-old woman with a history of arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus and its clinical, histologic, and immunohistochemical features. Microscopic examination of the breast lesion showed dense periductal and perilobular small and plasmacytoid lymphocytes with eosinophilic amyloid in the vessels and the stroma. Bilateral single foci of atypical ductal hyperplasia were also noted. Fine needle aspiration showed small and large lymphocytes and plasma cells. Molecular analysis demonstrated a heavy chain immunoglobulin H gene rearrangement. flow cytometry studies showed an abnormal B-cell population. The combined histologic, paraffin immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry, and molecular results were considered diagnostic for low-grade mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. The patient underwent bilateral local breast radiation without other organ or site involvement. ( info)

2/2. Missed breast carcinoma: pitfalls and pearls.

    mammography is the standard of reference for the detection of breast carcinoma, yet 10%-30% of breast cancers may be missed at mammography. Possible causes for missed breast cancers include dense parenchyma obscuring a lesion, poor positioning or technique, perception error, incorrect interpretation of a suspect finding, subtle features of malignancy, and slow growth of a lesion. Recent studies have emphasized the use of alternative imaging modalities to detect and diagnose breast carcinoma, including ultrasonography (US), magnetic resonance imaging, and nuclear medicine studies. However, the radiologist can take a number of steps that will significantly enhance the accuracy of image interpretation at mammography and decrease the false-negative rate. These steps include performing diagnostic as well as screening mammography, reviewing clinical data and using US to help assess a palpable or mammographically detected mass, strictly adhering to positioning and technical requirements, being alert to subtle features of breast cancers, comparing recent images with earlier mammograms to look for subtle increases in lesion size, looking for additional lesions when one abnormality is seen, and judging a lesion by its most malignant features. ( info)

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