Cases reported "Neoplasms, Experimental"

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1/38. Extracorporeal granulocytapheresis for cancer and rheumatoid arthritis.

    In cancer and rheumatoid arthritis, granulocytosis is often observed and indicates the progress of disease. We developed a granulocytapheresis system to permit granulocyte reduction. cellulose acetate was found to be a selective and effective adsorbent. In an in vivo study using an acetate bead column, 9.2 x 10(8) leukocytes were collected. Initially, granulocytapheresis was applied to terminal patients or those with stage IV cancer. pain, cough and bloody sputum were reduced in spite of no decrease in tumor size. Granulocytapheresis appears to prevent inflammatory damage in or around the tumor site. This granulocyte reduction technique was also applied to patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The Lansbury index markedly improved after treatment. As cytokines and adhesion molecules might contribute to symptoms, granulocytapheresis may be useful in improving the "quality of life" in these diseases. ( info)

2/38. Antibody as carrier of 131I in cancer diagnosis and treatment.

    Cell-surface localizing heterologous antibodies against mouse EL4 lymphoma, Ehrlich ascites carcinoma, and several human malignant tumors could be bound to varying amounts of 131I without interfering with the reactivity of these antibodies with their respective tumor cells. Exposure of the mouse tumor cells to radio-iodinated antitumor antibodies in vitro, or the injection of radio-iodinated antitumor antibodies into mice preinoculated with tumor cells resulted in either partial or complete tumor inhibition depending upon the amount of 131I activity carried by the antibodies. Injection of comparable amounts of the immunoglobulin alone or of 131I bound to normal globulin did not cause any tumor inhibition. Intraperitoneally injected radio-iodinated anti-EL4 antibody was found to localize preferentially in the subcutaneous transplants of EL4 lymphoma. Similar localization of intravenously injected radio-iodinated antibodies was observed in the metastases of two cancer patients. ( info)

3/38. Corticotropin-releasing factor-like activity in ACTH producing tumors.

    Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)-like activity in two different kinds of ACTH-producing tumors (human ectopic ACTH-producing colonic cancer and rat MtT/F4 tumor) was determined by an in vitro method using isolated normal rat pituitary cells. The ACTH content of the post mortem colonic cancer was 5.5 ng/g w.wt. The ACTH content of the medium of MtT/F4 tumor cells was 153 /-32 pg/10(5) cells. The ACTH content of MtT/F4 tumor cell suspensions was elevated with increasing doses of hypothalamic median eminence extract (HME). The response of MtT/F4 tumor cells to HME was suppressed by 1 mug/ml of dexamethasone. Extracts of colonic cancer, MtT/F4 tumor and HME produced elevation of the ACTH content of the medium of isolated rat pituitary cells. The CRF-like activities of two kinds of tumor extracts in multiple dilutions ran parallel to that of HME. The CRF-like activities were 0.037 HME equiv/mg w.wt in MtT/F4 tumor and 0.052 HME equiv/mg w.wt. in colonic cancer. These results demonstrated that CRF-like activity existed in these two kinds of ACTH-producing tumors. ( info)

4/38. Cancer: the eighth plague--a suggestion of pathogenesis.

    The current treatment of cancer is based on the assumption that this disease is the result of autonomous clonal proliferation of aberrant cells which must be excised, irradiated or selectively poisoned to achieve a cure. The presumption that the malignant cell constitutes the disease is now challenged by a variety of clinical observations and experimental studies. Like the grasshopper, which is transformed into a locust under altered environmental conditions, the cancer cell may be the manifestation of a defect in homeostatic regulation of cellular proliferation. Identification of the specific regulatory defect could allow for a more rational and more effective treatment of cancer in man. ( info)

5/38. CNS tumor induction by radiotherapy: a report of four new cases and estimate of dose required.

    We have analyzed 60 cases of intra-axial brain tumors associated with antecedent radiation therapy. These include four new cases. The patients had originally received radiation therapy for three reasons: (a) cranial irradiation for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), (b) definitive treatment of CNS neoplasia, and (c) treatment of benign disease (mostly cutaneous infections). The number of cases reported during the past decade has greatly increased as compared to previous years. Forty-six of the 60 intra-axial tumors have been reported since 1978. The relative risk of induction of an intra-axial brain tumor by radiation therapy is estimated to be more than 100, as compared to individuals who have not had head irradiation. ( info)

6/38. Endolymphatic isotope and BCG in the management of malignant melanoma.

    Endolymphatic isotope therapy had such promising early clinical results that the M.R.C. (Medical research Council) U.K. set up a clinical trial in 1966. This was to compare the effect of endolymphatic isotope therapy with the results of standard methods in the treatment of lower limb malignant melanoma. The interim report had three groups for analysis: Standard methods (S); Endolymphatic Satisfactory (ES); and Endolymphatic Unsatisfactory (EU). This third group was a subdivision, as a significant number of patients did not have the correct endolymphatic treatment. The five-year survival figures expressed as actuarial percentages were ES=78.8%; S=82.3%; and EU=57.3%. Lymph node recurrence showed a significant difference: ES=2.3%; EU=12%; and S=19%. The conclusions were that endolymphatic isotope therapy was justified in specialized centres where good results could be obtained. Further animal experiments using the VX2 tumour in rabbits indicated that BCG given intracutaneously or intravenously had no therapeutic effect, whereas when applied by intralymphatic injection BCG was successful in treating lymph node metastases. Nineteen patients with poor-prognosis malignant melanoma have received endolymphatic BCG. The clinical results are recorded in this paper and are sufficiently encouraging to warrant its continued use. ( info)

7/38. A human breast adenocarcinoma with chromosome and isoenzyme markers similar to those of the HeLa line.

    pleural effusion was obtained from a 51-year-old black woman who had breast adenocarcinoma and had received chemotherapy and radiation therapy after a radical mastectomy. Cytogenetic and isoenzymic analyses of the cells were performed within a few hours of obtaining the sample. Similar analyses were also done with a cell line established from this effusion. The stemline chromosome number was 35, one of the lowest in human neoplasms. In addition to a marker chromosome involving 1q, which is common in human breast tumors, we found several other marker chromosomes whose G-banding patterns were similar to some of the typical HeLa markers. Genetic signature analysis of 15 isoenzyme loci revealed that 13 were identical to those of HeLa. Both HeLa and the cell line described here express glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase type a, yet they were derived from heterozygotic individuals (ab). Our data indicate the necessity to extensive cytogenetic and biochemical analysis before conclusions are made that cell lines are actually intercell-line contaminants. ( info)

8/38. Granulocytosis and colony-stimulating activity (CSA) produced by a human squamous cell carcinoma.

    A patient with a squamous cell carcinoma accompanied by a marked granulocytosis (100,000/mm3) of unknown origin was examined for Colony-Stimulating Activity (CSA). The pleural fluid and the tumor extract revealed high CSA. The floating cells in the pleural fluid were successfully transplanted into nude mice as a localized tumor with cyst formation. The tumor invariably caused a marked granulocytosis (100,000--300,000/mm3) with induction of a conspicuous splenic granulopoiesis in the transplanted mice. High CSA were demonstrated in their cystic fluid as well. Media conditioned by the primary cultures of these tumor cells revealed the same CSA, demonstrating the direct production of CSA by the tumor itself. These results indicate the presence of human CSA producing tumor and that such a tumor may in part account for a marked granulocytosis of unknown origin observed in some patients with cancer. ( info)

9/38. Immunodiagnosis of mesothelioma: use of antimesothelial cell serum in an indirect immunofluorescence assay.

    cells isolated from human serous effusions were cultured in vitro. Monolayers of large multipolar cells were established. Antisera to the cultured cells were prepared in rabbits and rats. The antisera were absorbed with human red cells, liver powder and MOLT-4F cell line lymphocytes. Specificity of the absorbed antisera for human mesothelial cells were demonstrated in an indirect immunofluorescence assay. The antisera were used to confirm the diagnosis of mesothelioma in two cases. In both the patients, the morphologically identifiable malignant cell populations in the effusions stained positively with the antimesothelial cell serum thus establishing their mesothelial origin. Normal nonmesothelial tissue and known nonmesothelial tumors failed to react with the antisera thus confirming the specificity of the antisera. ( info)

10/38. Metastasizing extradural ependymoma of the sacrococcygeal region: case report and review of literature.

    A case is discussed in which the patient presented with a primary extradural sacrococcygeal ependymoma and synchronous pulmonary metastasis. The clinical course has been characterized by recurrent pulmonary metastases. Management has consisted of repeated surgical resections of the pulmonary metastases and the tumor at the primary site; and the use of a wide spectrum of chemotherapeutic agents. transplantation of this tumor into nude mice initially resulted in rapid growth but there was spontaneous regression in the second transplants. A general discussion of the management of such lesions is presented, and the literature pertaining to this tumor is discussed. ( info)
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