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1/609. The use of vitreoretinal surgical techniques in subfoveal choroidal neovascularization.

    Subfoveal choroidal neovascularization generally carries a poor visual prognosis. This review traces the evolving vitreoretinal surgical techniques for the treatment of this entity. Extensive retinotomies to expose large submacular scars caused frequent complications and poor visual results. More recently, small retinotomy techniques with manipulation of subfoveal membranes behind neurosensory retina have been described. Removal of subfoveal neovascularization with this latter approach is summarized. Visual results are variable. If foveal retinal pigment epithelium can be preserved, excellent central visual function can be regained. In the majority of subfoveal membranes, surgical removal creates retinal pigment epithelium defects, and acuity is limited. These approaches merit further evaluation. ( info)

2/609. Peripheral choriovitreal neovascularization in proliferative diabetic retinopathy: histopathologic and ultrastructural study.

    We describe the histopathologic and ultrastructural evidence of choriovitreal neovascularization in the peripheral fundus of a non-vitrectomized eye with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). One eye with PDR was surgically enucleated because of neovascular glaucoma and studied with light and electron microscopy. The eye had neovascular membranes at the ora serrata of the peripheral fundus. The newly formed vessels originated from the choroid, passed through Bruch's membrane and the retina, and extended into the vitreous. These vessels had either developing or mature characteristics. The endothelial cells of the developing vessels contained a bulky cytoplasm with many intracytoplasmic filaments, ribosomes and rough endoplasmic reticulum. Budding endothelial cells were frequently found in the developing vessels. The endothelial cells of the mature vessels had attenuated cytoplasm and fenestrations with diaphragms. These observations suggest that choriovitreal neovascularization in the peripheral fundus is one of the features of PDR. ( info)

3/609. Preservation of hypervascularity in hepatocellular carcinoma after effective proton-beam radiotherapy--CT observation.

    AIM: The aim of this study was to describe persistence of hypervascularity in proton treated hepatocellular carcinoma at serial follow-up computed tomography (CT). methods: Four patients with unresectable solitary hypervascular hepatocellular carcinoma underwent 55-82 Gy proton-beam irradiation for a period of 15-47 days. Follow-up CT including plain, enhanced and dynamic imaging was performed for a period of 9-36 months. RESULTS: Good preservation of arterial blood supply while gradual decrease in tumour size was clearly depicted by dynamic CT. CONCLUSION: We believe that preservation of hypervascularity as judged by enhancement at CT and magnetic resonance imaging, does not necessarily mean that radiotherapy in hypervascular malignant tumours has been unsuccessful. ( info)

4/609. Clinical and radiographic response in three children with recurrent malignant cerebral tumors with high-dose tamoxifen.

    The purpose of this study was to deliver tamoxifen as antiangiogenic therapy to children with recurrent progressive malignant brain tumors. tamoxifen was administered orally in very high dosage to one child as monotherapy and to two children in combination with oral etoposide and dexamethasone. One boy was diagnosed with high-grade astrocytoma in the brain stem, one girl with anaplastic ependymoma of the fourth ventricule, and one girl with high-grade astrocytoma in the midbrain. Conventional treatment with multiple surgeries, first- and second-line chemotherapy, and external beam therapy had failed. Tumor reduction was seen in radiographic images together with clinical improvement in 2 children, and clinical and radiographic halting of tumor progression was demonstrated in the patient with anaplastic ependymoma. None of the patients developed complications from the treatment. Follow up of the patients ranged from 15 to 30 months with a mean of 17 months. These encouraging preliminary results suggest a potential for this type of therapy. More studies are needed to start clinical trials and prove that angiostatic activity may contribute to the therapeutic effect of antiestrogens in estrogen receptor-negative tumors. ( info)

5/609. Antiangiogenic therapy of a recurrent giant cell tumor of the mandible with interferon alfa-2a.

    We report a 5-year-old girl with a large rapidly growing giant cell tumor of the mandible that recurred 2 months after the first surgical excision and 3 months after a second resection. An angiogenic protein, (bFGF), was abnormally elevated in her urine. The patient was treated with interferon alfa-2a for 1 year because this agent inhibits angiogenesis by suppressing bFGF overexpression in infantile hemangiomas and in other human tumors. During this time the bone tumor regressed and disappeared, the urinary bFGF fell to normal levels, and the mandible regenerated. She has remained tumor-free and has been off therapy for 3 years at this writing. This first successful use of interferon alfa-2a to treat a mandibular tumor in a child demonstrates: 1) low grade tumors that overexpress bFGF may respond to interferon alfa-2a, in a manner similar to life-threatening infantile hemangiomas; 2) antiangiogenic therapy, given without interruption for 1 year, was safe and effective in this patient; and 3) treatment may be continued for 1 year without the development of drug resistance. ( info)

6/609. Pericardial involvement by thymomas. Entirely intrapericardial thymoma and a pericardial metastasis of thymoma with glomeruloid vascular proliferations.

    Thymomas are usually found in the anterior mediastinum, the normal location of the thymus. Involvement of the pericardium by thymic tumors is seen in invasive or metastasized thymoma. Very rarely, thymomas arise primarily in the pericardium. These tumors are believed to derive from thymic tissue which was misplaced in the pericardium during embryologic development. In contrast to patients with orthotopic thymoma who commonly suffer from paraneoplastic diseases, especially myasthenia gravis, patients with intrapericardial thymoma manifestations mainly have symptoms of congestive heart failure which are caused by local complications of tumor growth. In this study, we present two cases of thymoma involving the pericardium. Both tumors were polygonal-oval cell thymomas. In one of the cases diagnosis of an entirely intrapericardial thymoma was established by autopsy. In the other case, explorative thoracotomy revealed massive pericardial and pleural tumor manifestations. The latter tumor showed a peculiar histological pattern with multiple glomeruloid bodies, a finding reported only once for thymomas. ( info)

7/609. Progressive changes in the fluorescein and indocyanine green angiogram in acute idiopathic maculopathy.

    AIMS/BACKGROUND: To report progressive changes in the fluorescein and indocyanine green angiograms of a patient with acute idiopathic maculopathy (AIM). methods: Over a two-year period, the patient underwent repeated ophthalmoscopic examinations and fluorescein (FA) and indocyanine green (ICG) angiography. RESULTS: The patient presented with subretinal neovascularization in his right eye. He developed recurrences after laser photocoagulation and surgical removal of the neovascular complex. One year later, he experienced a sudden loss of vision in his left eye with a maculopathy consistent with AIM. The maculopathy resolved after two weeks with poor vision. During the acute stage, FA showed lobular hyperfluorescence in the early phase and pooling in the late phase of the angiogram. In the resolved stage of the disease, FA showed irregular window defects and blockage. ICG revealed late hyperfluorescence of the macula in the acute stage. In the resolved stage of the disease, early hypofluorescence was noted in the ICG, which persisted throughout the late phase. CONCLUSION: This patient had poor vision in his right eye as a result of subretinal retinal neovascularization and poor vision in his left eye from a severe form of AIM. FA and ICG differed markedly during the acute and resolved stages of AIM. All cases of idiopathic subretinal neovascularization should be carefully evaluated to exclude AIM as the primary disease. ( info)

8/609. Endoscopic removal of an esophageal fibrovascular polyp.

    Fibrovascular polyps are intraluminal pedunculated esophageal polyps, which can produce devastating consequences if untreated. Therapy for these lesions is traditionally surgical, with esophagotomy. The present report describes a case of endoscopic removal of a fibrovascular polyp, alleviating the need for hospitalization or further interventions. The natural history, clinical presentation, diagnostic evaluation, and therapies are reviewed. ( info)

9/609. Neovascularity related to mural thrombus in endomyocardial fibrosis.

    We report a 30-year old, previously healthy, Ghanese woman admitted with sudden onset of dyspnoe, hemoptoe and right-sided chest pain due to endomyocardial fibrosis with secondary pulmonary emboli coronary angiography revealed a myocardial "blush". This finding may focus attention to the presence of mural thrombus that may have diagnostic and therapeutic consequences. ( info)

10/609. Venous collateral remodeling in a patient with posttraumatic glaucoma.

    PURPOSE: To photographically document venous collateral development, remodeling, and regression in a patient with traumatic glaucoma. methods: Consecutive fundus photographs were evaluated, labeled, and correlated with the clinical history of a patient with unilateral posttraumatic glaucoma. RESULTS: This report photographically documents the appearance, remodeling, and subsequent disappearance of collateral vessels from venous occlusion on the surface of the optic disk in an eye with increased intraocular pressure and progressive glaucomatous cupping. CONCLUSIONS: Asymptomatic chronic obstruction of a branch retinal vein on the optic disk may cause venous collaterals to develop in the absence of retinal hemorrhages or other signs of venous occlusive disease. Increased intraocular pressure, arteriolarsclerosis, and glaucomatous cupping are risk factors for these occlusions. ( info)
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