Cases reported "Nephrocalcinosis"

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11/158. Intratubular calcification in a post-renal transplanted patient with secondary hyperparathyroidism.

    In this article, we present a case in which marked intratubular calcification occurred in the transplanted kidney. The patient received living renal transplantation without control of severe secondary hyperparathyroidism, and the tacrolimus hydrate was used as an immunosuppressive agent, the adverse effects of which can induce intratubular calcification. biopsy of the renal allograft revealed many intratubular calcifications in the cortex region of the specimen, although the histological grade was borderline for the Banff classification. The pathogenic causes of intratubular calcification were difficult to distinguish from the adverse effects of tacrolimus and the uncontrolled hyperparathyroidism. ( info)

12/158. Renal involvement in sarcoidosis--a report of 6 cases.

    This report concerns 6 patients with renal involvement in sarcoidosis. Two of the patients had no clinical symptoms at all. In 3 patients, no extrarenal organ manifestation was found. All 6 patients had elevated levels of serum creatinine, 2 were hypercalcemic. Five patients manifested with mild proteinuria, but in none of the cases was a nephritic sediment with erythrocytes found. kidney biopsies in 5 patients showed epitheloid cell granulomatous interstitial nephritis, and 1 patient presented with nephrocalcinosis. All patients were treated with corticosteroids. The serum creatinine levels decreased significantly in 4 patients (> 50% decrease), and slightly in 2 patients, elevated serum calcium levels were normalized. Thus, even in the absence of other organ manifestations, sarcoidosis can be the cause of renal insufficiency, and it responds well to corticosteroid treatment. These patients demonstrate the importance of kidney biopsy in the unexplained deterioration of renal function. ( info)

13/158. Hypomagnesemia due to renal disease of unknown etiology.

    A young man, investigated because of tetanic convulsions and arthritic pains, was shown to have hypomagnesemia, hypermagnesuria, hypokalemia, hypercalciuria, progressive nephrocalcinosis and chondrocalcinosis. In this syndrome, renal function was normal except for the abnormal excretion of electrolytes. Renal sodium conservation was normal. light and electron microscopic studies of renal biopsy specimens showed the presence of several abnormal tubules. Immunofluorescent staining showed deposits of immunoglobulins in the glomeruli and tubules. magnesium therapy was started under balance study conditions and resulted in decreased calciuria and complete remission of subjective symptoms. The progression of nephrocalcinosis was halted, and there was some decrease in the intra-articular calcium deposits after two years of continuous oral magnesium therapy. The administration of spironolactone decreased urinary magnesium but did not normalize it, whereas triamterene administration was without effect in this respect. The results of the morphologic and electrolyte balance studies are discussed. The patient was found to exhibit several features which have not been described before in connection with hypomagnesemia of unknown origin. ( info)

14/158. Congenital sucrase-isomaltase deficiency presenting with failure to thrive, hypercalcemia, and nephrocalcinosis.

    BACKGROUND: Disaccharide Intolerance Type I (Mendelian Interance in Man database: *222900) is a rare inborn error of metabolism resulting from mutation in sucrase-isomaltase (Enzyme Catalyzed 3.2.1.48). Usually, infants with SI deficiency come to attention because of chronic diarrhea and nutritional evidence of malabsorption. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe an atypical presentation of this disorder in a 10-month-old infant. In addition to chronic diarrhea, the child displayed severe and chronic hypercalcemia, the evaluation of which was negative. An apparently coincidental right orbital hemangioma was detected. Following identification of the SI deficiency, an appropriately sucrose-restricted, but normal calcium diet regimen was instituted which led to cessation of diarrhea, substantial weight gain, and resolution of hypercalcemia. CONCLUSIONS: This case illustrates that, similar to congenital lactase deficiency (Mendelian Interance in Man database: *223000, Alactasia, Hereditary Disaccharide Intolerance Type II), hypercalcemia may complicate neonatal sucrase-Isomaltase deficiency. hypercalcemia in the presence of chronic diarrhea should suggest disaccharide intolerance in young infants. ( info)

15/158. The syndrome of renal tubular acidosis with nerve deafness.

    Two brothers with renal tubular acidosis and nerve deafness are described. Studies of the physiopathological characteristics of the renal acidification defect show that the defect is limited to the distal tubule. Renal tubular acidosis with nerve deafness is a distinct nosologic entity that is determined by an autosomal recessive trait. ( info)

16/158. amelogenesis imperfecta and nephrocalcinosis: a new case of this rare syndrome.

    This article describes a new case of a rare syndrome including enamel agenesis of the primary and permanent dentition, delayed or absent eruption of the permanent dentition, coronal intra-alveolar resorption and gingival enlargement. Renal symptoms include medullary nephrocalcinosis without any apparent cause, and evolution to a renal failure. The early diagnosis provided by the oral symptoms leads to a better renal prognosis. As a consequence, pediatric dentists should be aware of this pathology. ( info)

17/158. A girl with rickets and nephrocalcinosis.

    A 5-year-old girl presented with short stature. She was found to have rickets due to renal phosphate wasting and nephrocalcinosis. serum parathyroid hormone was suppressed, 25-OH vitamin d was within the normal range, and 1,25-(OH)(2 )vitamin d was elevated. In addition, she had hypercalciuria, proteinuria, which was partially tubular in origin, and a reduced glomerular filtration rate of 58 ml/min per 1.73 m(2). Treatment with phosphate supplements resulted in healing of the rickets and normalization of the serum 1,25-(OH)(2 )vitamin d level. This patient is an example of hypercalciuric rickets, most likely due to an inherited disorder of phosphate metabolism. Hypercalciuric rickets can be inherited as an autosomal recessive as well as autosomal dominant trait. ( info)

18/158. Neonatal nephrocalcinosis in association with glucose-galactose malabsorption.

    We report a case of severe nephrocalcinosis related to hypercalcaemia in a newborn with glucose-galactose malabsorption. He presented with poor growth and was noted to have polyuria, which was later recognised to be severe watery diarrhoea. We discuss the possible aetiological factors for nephrocalcinosis in this condition. ( info)

19/158. Renal hypomagnesemia, hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis in a middle-aged man.

    We report a 41-year-old man with hypomagnesemia, hypercalciuria, nephrocalcinosis, myopia and horizontal nystagmus. The hypomagnesemia was due to primary renal magnesium loss. He was diagnosed as having the syndrome of renal hypomagnesemia, hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis. This is a rare condition generally diagnosed by the first to third decades of life. Renal failure is common and end-stage renal disease can occur in children or young adults. The patient was treated with oral magnesium, chlorthalidone, potassium citrate and allopurinol and was followed up for 3 years. Treatment resulted in an improvement in hypercalciuria but serum magnesium level could not be normalized. The patient's renal function remains stable, with a mild degree of renal insufficiency. ( info)

20/158. nephrocalcinosis and medullary cysts in 3-methylglutaconic aciduria.

    3-methylglutaconic aciduria is frequently found during urine organic acid analysis and is widely regarded as a marker of a mitochondrial disorder, the clinical features of which are very heterogeneous. We describe two siblings with 3-methylglutaconic aciduria in whom renal ultrasonography showed echogenic medullae consistent with nephrocalcinosis. One patient also developed medullary cysts. In both children renal function was normal and neither had any plasma or urinary evidence of tubulopathy. The presence of nephrocalcinosis and medullary cysts in patients with 3-methylglutaconic aciduria adds to the heterogeneous clinical presentation of this group of disorders. ( info)
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