Cases reported "Neural Tube Defects"

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1/355. Heterotaxy-neural tube defect and holoprosencephaly occuring independently in two sib fetuses.

    We report on two sib fetuses, products of a consanguineous union, who had multiple and apparently unrelated malformations. The first fetus, a female, had trilobed lungs, a single cardiac ventricle, asplenia, situs ambiguus of the liver, and a lumbosacral meningomyelocele. The brain of this fetus was normal. The second fetus, a male, had bilobed lungs, a single cardiac ventricle, situs solitus of the abdominal organs and spleen, and a semilobar holoprosencephaly. The occurrence of these malformations in sibs of different sexes and the parental consanguinity suggest a recessive mutation in a gene responsible for both heterotaxy and midline defects, including holoprosencephaly. ( info)

2/355. Extraspinal dural arteriovenous fistula in a patient with lipomyelodysplasia: value of MRI and MRA.

    Spinal dural arteriovenous fistulae are extremely rare in spinal dysraphism. A fistulous malformation within a lipomyelomeningocele has not been reported previously. A 50-year-old man presented with progressive paraparesis and bladder dysfunction. MRI revealed a large lumbar lipomyelomeningocele. A vascular malformation was indicated by abnormal signal in the thoracolumbar spinal cord and dilated perimedullary veins. Phase-contrast MRA demonstrated only the slow-flow veins of the fistula and an intradural ascending vein. Contrast-enhanced ultra-fast MRA gave excellent delineation of all parts of the fistula within the dysraphic lesion. ( info)

3/355. Segmental costovertebral malformations: association with neural tube defects. Report of 3 cases and review of the literature.

    patients with spondylocostal dysostosis (SCD) have vertebral abnormalities and numerical or structural rib anomalies that produce thoracic asymmetry. Rib anomalies and dysmorphism are the typical features that differentiate this syndrome from spondylothoracic dysostosis (STD). Jarcho-Levin syndrome is a severe form with involvement of the whole vertebral column. Other associated findings such as congenital heart defects, abdominal wall malformations, genitourinary malformations and upper limb anomalies may be found; in addition, neural tube defects (NTDs) have been associated with this malformation. SCD is transmitted both in a recessive form and as a dominant defect. We report on 3 children with SCD; 2 also had NTDs. All of them were studied with x-rays and spinal magnetic resonance (MR), and over the same period they underwent multidisciplinary clinical functional evaluation. One of our cases with NTD also presented polythelia, which has not previously been described in patients with SCD. The common association of segmental costovertebral malformations with NTDs could be related to an early gastrulation genomic defect, or one after gastrulation, when there are two independent somitic columns. The latter sometimes progresses and then involves primary and secondary neurulation. Also, the association of SCD with NTDs could be related to the interaction of different genes, resulting in this complex phenotype. Therefore, additional genetical and embryological studies are necessary to provide evidence of an etiological link between SCD and NTD. ( info)

4/355. Human transcription factor SLUG: mutation analysis in patients with neural tube defects and identification of a missense mutation (D119E) in the Slug subfamily-defining region.

    Studies in mouse, chicken and xenopus have shown that Slug is selectively expressed in the dorsal part of the developing neural tube. Ablation and antisense experiments in chicken suggest that Slug may be an important factor during neural tube closure. We therefore investigated the role of Slug as a possible candidate contributing to the aetiology of neural tube defects (NTD) in humans. We characterised the genomic structure of human SLUG including determination of the exon-intron boundaries. The coding sequence of SLUG was screened for mutations in 150 patients with NTD using single strand conformation analysis (SSCA). In one patient, we identified a missense mutation 1548C-->A in exon 2 causing an exchange of a conserved amino acid (D119E) in the Slug subfamily-defining region preceding the first zinc finger. This is the first description of a human mutation in the SLUG gene. In accordance with the findings in model organisms, the SLUG mutation may be causally related to the development of NTD in our patient and could be considered as a predisposing factor. ( info)

5/355. Tethered cord syndrome in adults.

    adult onset of tethered cord syndrome is a rare pathologic entity. Its treatable nature makes early diagnosis and timely surgical intervention important goals. Because of present referral patterns, adult patients with tethered cord syndrome may present initially to their primary care physician. We present a recent representative case of adult-onset tethered cord syndrome, with emphasis on initial complaints and the symptom constellation relevant to the primary care physician. Thorough clinical history and physical examination should direct investigators to include tethered cord syndrome in the differential diagnosis of select patients. ( info)

6/355. spinal cord tethering associated with amniotic band syndrome.

    amniotic band syndrome (ABS) comprises fetal morphological abnormalities that may be associated with fibrous amniotic bands that damage developing fetal parts resulting in cutaneous scars, erosions and ulcerations, digital constricting bands, craniofacial and visceral anomalies. Multiple asymmetric encephaloceles and anencephaly are neural-tube-like defects previously reported with ABS. This is the first report of spinal dysraphism with dorsal spinal cord tethering associated with ABS. We examine the pathogenetic theories of ABS in light of this report. ( info)

7/355. A case report of caudal regression syndrome associated with an intraspinal arachnoid cyst.

    We report here a rare case of caudal regression syndrome associated with an intraspinal arachnoid cyst. The patient was a 6-month-old baby girl with multicomplex congenital abnormalities: sacrococcygeal dysgenesis and ventral curvature, large terminal cyst (myelocystocele), spinal arachnoid cyst, cerebellar hypertrophy (suspected), high imperforate anus, partial dysgenesis of the large intestine, omphalocele, atresia of the vagina, bilateral incomplete ureter duplication, incomplete pseudoduplicated bladder and bilateral talipes equinovarus. We performed plastic repair of the myelocystocele and perineal lesion for caudal regression syndrome and partial removal of the cyst wall for the intraspinal arachnoid cyst. She has been well for 3 years postoperatively, and her mental development is normal. ( info)

8/355. Iniencephaly: prenatal diagnosis and management.

    Iniencephaly is a rare malformation characterized by the triad of occipital bone defect, cervical dysraphism and fixed retroflexion of the fetal head. Because of its almost invariable lethal prognosis, termination of pregnancy is commonplace when this condition is diagnosed before viability. In this report we describe eight cases of iniencephaly prenatally diagnosed by ultrasound between 18 and 28 weeks of gestation and discuss the subsequent obstetric management in a country where elective abortion is illegal. Prenatal karyotyping was performed in seven cases, revealing a normal complement in all fetuses. One pregnancy miscarried at 24 weeks. Uneventful vaginal delivery was accomplished in six of the remaining seven cases, one delivered spontaneously at 29 weeks and five were induced between 28-32 weeks due to increasing polyhydramnios. In the remaining case the pregnancy progressed to 35 weeks, at which time spontaneous labour began and an emergency Caesarean section was performed because of malpresentation. There were no survivors in this series. We conclude that, in countries were elective abortion is not allowed, women carrying an iniencephalic fetus may benefit from preterm induction of labour in order to avoid labour dystocia, maternal trauma during delivery and the risks of a Caesarean section. ( info)

9/355. A novel t(11;12)(q23-24;q24) in a case of minimally-differentiated acute myeloid leukemia (AML-M0).

    Acute myeloid leukemia with minimal signs of myeloid differentiation (AML-M0) is a recent addition to the FAB group classification. Chromosome data is scarce, but existing reports describe a high incidence of complex karyotypes and myelodysplastic syndrome-like chromosome alterations, while single chromosome translocations have rarely been reported. We describe the case of a 60-year-old woman diagnosed with AML-M0 with a novel translocation t(11;12)(q23-24;q24) as the sole karyotypic marker. fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis to assess MLL gene splitting did not show rearrangement of this oncogene. ( info)

10/355. neural tube defects and the 13q deletion syndrome: evidence for a critical region in 13q33-34.

    neural tube defects (NTD) are common findings in the 13q deletion syndrome, but the relationship between the 13q- syndrome and NTDs is poorly understood. We present a child with a 13q deletion and lumbosacral myelomeningocele. This was a boy with microcephaly, telecanthus, minor facial anomalies, and ambiguous genitalia. Cytogenetic and fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis showed a de novo 46,XY,del(13)(q33.2-->qter) with no visible translocation. By using microsatellite markers, the deletion breakpoint was mapped to a 350-kb region between D13S274 and D13S1311 and was paternal in origin. An analysis of 13q deletions with NTDs, including the present case, suggests that a deletion in 13q33-34 is sufficient to cause an NTD. The deletions associated with NTDs are distal to and nonoverlapping with the previously defined critical region in 13q32 for the major malformation syndrome [Brown et al., 1999: Am J Hum Genet 57: 859-866]. Our analysis also suggests that one or more genes in 13q33-34 produces NTDs by haploinsufficiency. ( info)
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