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1/395. neuroleptic malignant syndrome associated with olanzapine.

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present paper is to report a case of neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) occurring 2 days after olanzapine was added to the treatment regimen of an elderly patient with Schizoaffective Disorder. The patient had a previous history of NMS associated with risperidone. CLINICAL PICTURE: Two days after commencement of olanzapine, the patient presented in a stuporous state with dysarthria and increased muscle tone with cogwheeling. His level of consciousness fluctuated over the following 24 h with worsening rigidity, the onset of a mild fever, tachycardia and elevated blood pressure. Biochemical screening revealed markedly elevated creatine kinase. TREATMENT: Olanzapine was ceased and intravenous fluid replacement commenced. Hourly physical observations were instigated, as was regular serum monitoring of creatine kinase level. OUTCOME: Over the subsequent 48 h, there was gradual clinical improvement with resolution of dysarthria, ataxia, rigidity and fever. The patient was returned to the psychiatric ward 3 days after his admission to the medical ward. CONCLUSIONS: Olanzapine therapy can be associated with NMS. To our knowledge, there are no previous reports of this in the literature. ( info)

2/395. Management of neuroleptic malignant syndrome with anticholinergic medication.

    neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a life-threatening adverse reaction arising from the use of neuroleptic medications. While dopaminergic agonists, dantrolrene and supportive care are traditionally utilized in the stabilization and management of NMS, anticholinergic medication may also prove effective therapy. Treatment with anticholinergic medication has been suggested in cases of NMS associated with mild hyperthermia. We describe a case of 17-y-old female, who was brought to the emergency department for a possible "acute dystonic reaction". The patient received 50 mg diphenhydramine i.v., which resulted in improvement in mental status. The patient was readmitted to the emergency department 1 d following discharge with symptoms similar, but now considering the diagnosis of NMS. diphenhydramine 50 mg i.v. was again administered and resulted in significant improvement. ( info)

3/395. clozapine-associated neuroleptic malignant syndrome: two new cases and a review of the literature.

    BACKGROUND: clozapine has recently been found to be associated with neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS). Our objective is to determine if clozapine causes NMS, if the presentation of clozapine-induced NMS differs from that of traditional agents, and which set of diagnostic criteria will most readily allow diagnosis of NMS associated with clozapine. methods: Two new cases of clozapine-associated NMS are presented, along with previously reported cases from the literature, identified by using a medline search (1966-August 1998). From all cases, concomitant medications and washout periods were examined (if available) to assess clozapine as the likely cause of NMS. Characteristics of clozapine and traditional antipsychotic-induced NMS were compared. Different diagnostic criteria for NMS were applied to the cases to determine which were more likely to diagnose the syndrome. RESULTS: clozapine was deemed a highly probable cause of NMS in 14 cases, a medium probability cause in five cases, and a low probability cause in eight cases. The most commonly reported clinical features were tachycardia, mental status changes, and diaphoresis. fever, rigidity, and elevated creatine kinase were less prominent than in NMS associated with classical neuroleptics. CONCLUSIONS: clozapine appears to cause NMS, although the presentation may be different than that of traditional antipsychotics. Levenson's original and Addonizio's modified criteria were more likely to diagnose NMS than were other criteria. clozapine-associated NMS may present with fewer clinical features. Limitations are the lack of detailed information provided by many of the case reports and the use of "modified" diagnostic criteria for retrospective diagnosis. ( info)

4/395. electroconvulsive therapy for the treatment of neuroleptic malignant syndrome with psychotic symptoms: a report of five cases.

    We report five cases of neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) with psychotic symptoms treated with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). Clinical response was observed after the first or the second session of ECT in every case, and the symptoms of NMS resolved by the third or fourth session. The mean time from the initial ECT to complete resolution was 6.0 days. No side effects from ECT were observed. Although the first treatment for NMS is pharmacotherapy using drugs such as dantrolene and bromocriptine, our results suggest that ECT is a useful therapeutic method for patients with NMS and psychotic symptoms. ( info)

5/395. A veteran with acute mental changes years after combat.

    A 49-year-old man presented with a five-week history of worsening confusion, agitation, and bizarre behavior. According to his mother and sister, who live with him, he had inexplicably jumped out of bed one day and complained of injuring his back. The pain apparently resolved within several days. Two weeks later, again just after awakening, he had experienced a period of confusion, lasting about 15 min. The latest episode occurred three days previously and included vivid hallucinations--at various times, he seemed to believe that he was talking to his brother on the telephone, drinking a glass of water, emptying the refrigerator, jumping into a foxhole, and stomping on rattlesnakes. He was disoriented to time as well as environment. ( info)

6/395. Acute hypernatremia and neuroleptic malignant syndrome in parkinson disease.

    neuroleptic malignant syndrome is a clinical syndrome characterized by fever, muscle rigidity, and mutism. Some patients with neuroleptic syndrome may have elevated creatine phosphokinase values and abnormal liver aminotransferase values. precipitating factors are important clues for prompt diagnosis. Typical precipitating factors include antipsychotic agents and major tranquilizers. In parkinson disease, drug withdrawal, menstruation, and hyponatremia are precipitating factors. We report a case of neuroleptic malignant syndrome in a patient with parkinson disease and hypernatremia. In addition, we hypothesized that sudden change of sodium concentrations in the central nervous system could trigger neuroleptic malignant syndrome in patients with parkinson disease. According to our experience, neuroleptic malignant syndrome is a clinical diagnosis and prompt diagnosis avoids unnecessary, expensive work-ups. ( info)

7/395. neuroleptic malignant syndrome during low dosed neuroleptic medication in first-episode psychosis: a case report.

    neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a rare but potentially fatal side-effect of antipsychotic drug therapy, especially of dopamine receptor antagonists. As a dose relationship has been postulated, low dose neuroleptization would be expected to help to avoid this side-effect. In contrast, we report on a 21-year-old female following low dose fluphenazine treatment with 2.5 mg/day. The patient recovered from NMS after 3 days of dantrolene administration. Eventually, remission from psychotic symptoms was achieved with clozapine. At 8-month follow-up, psychopathology remained stable and there were no more signs of NMS. ( info)

8/395. Acute basagran poisoning mimicking neuroleptic malignant syndrome.

    A 27-year-old robust man, without any medical and surgical history, attempted to commit suicide by consumption of 300 cc (44.1%, 132.3 g) basagran, a readily available herbicide. This poisoning resulted in vomiting, fever, sweating, pipe-like muscle rigidity, sinus tachycardia, drowsiness, leukocytosis, rhabdomyolysis and hepatorenal damage. Emperical treatment with bromocriptine was temporally associated with resolution of above signs and symptoms. His clinical presentations and the effect of bromocriptine may be indicative that basagran poisoning mimicks neuroleptic malignant syndrome. ( info)

9/395. Repeated propofol anesthesia for a patient with a history of neuroleptic malignant syndrome.

    neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is the most serious side effect produced by the administration of antipsychotic drugs. NMS shares many clinical similarities with malignant hyperthermia (MH), but the etiology of NMS and the relation between NMS and MH remain unknown. Anesthetic regimens for patients with NMS are not well established. We gave repeated anesthesia to a patient with a history of NMS undergoing electroconvulsive therapy for the treatment of depression. propofol and vecuronium were used in twelve consecutive ECT sessions without complications. In this case report, we describe the safe and satisfactory repeated use of propofol in a patient with a history of NMS, and outline NMS and its questionable relation to MH. ( info)

10/395. Electroconvulsive treatment of neuroleptic malignant syndrome: a review and report of cases.

    OBJECTIVE: neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a potentially lethal adverse effect of neuroleptic medication, with no satisfactory treatment currently available. electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has been anecdotally reported to be effective in its treatment. We review 45 published case reports of ECT for NMS and describe nine new cases, to examine its effectiveness, the likelihood of adverse reactions, and the theoretical implications of such treatment. METHOD: The authors used medline to identify reports in the English literature where ECT was used in cases of suspected NMS. In addition, the charts of patients referred to the second author for treatment of NMS were reviewed and cases in which ECT used were identified. RESULTS: The case reports suggest that ECT is effective in many individuals with NMS, even when drug therapy has failed. The response is usually apparent after a few treatments, generally up to six. The response is not predictable on the basis of age, gender, psychiatric diagnosis or any particular feature of NMS including catatonia. electroconvulsive therapy is a relatively safe treatment in NMS, although the risk of cardiovascular complications should be considered. malignant hyperthermia due to the anaesthesia associated with ECT has not been reported in patients with NMS, and succinylcholine has been used safely with the exception of one report of fever and raised creatine kinase levels and another report of hyperkalemia. CONCLUSIONS: electroconvulsive therapy is the preferred treatment in severe NMS, cases where the underlying psychiatric diagnosis is psychotic depression or catatonia, and in cases where lethal catatonia cannot be ruled out. The effectiveness of ECT for the treatment of NMS has theoretical implications for the relationship between NMS and catatonia, and the possible pathophysiological mechanisms that underlie these disorders. ( info)
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