Cases reported "Neurologic Manifestations"

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1/105. immobilization hypercalcemia crisis.

    Profound hypercalcemia associated with immobilization is rare. Hypercalcemic crisis occurring as a result of immobilization in which there was not a coexisting, contributing medical condition has not, to our knowledge, been reported previously. Failure to consider hypercalcemia as the source of progressive anorexia, nausea, vomiting, and irritability resulted in a respiratory arrest and nearly fatal outcome in the case of a 13-year-old boy one month after a simple femoral fracture. Therapy consisting of the intravenous administration of fluids and corticosteroids was successful in lowering the serum calcium level until mobilization could be accomplished. review of previously reported cases emphasizes the difficulty in recognition and diagnosis of this unusual condition. Surgeons treating patients with fractures should be aware of this complication and familiar with its appropriate therapy. ( info)

2/105. Scleroderma cerebritis, an unusual manifestation of progressive systemic sclerosis.

    A 42-year-old female with scleroderma experienced two exacerbations in which behavioral changes were the main clinical features. On both occasions she presented with paranoid delusions, perceptual aberrations, and disorientation. After treatment with corticosteroids, the patient's mental status returned to normal, and her electroencephalogram showed an increase in alpha wave frequency, which is consistent with a resolving delirium. Unlike systemic lupus erythematosus, scleroderma rarely involves the central nervous system. This case illustrates an unusual manifestation of progressive systemic sclerosis, primary cerebral involvement which presented as an acute organic brain syndrome. connective tissue diseases, notably systemic lupus erythematosus, often present neuropsychiatric symptoms. Despite the fact that there appears to be a clinical and pathological continuum among the connective tissue diseases, an organic psychosis rarely occurs in progressive systemic sclerosis (scleroderma. Described here is a patient with scleroderma in whom behavioral abnormalities were the main features of two exacerbations of the disease. ( info)

3/105. Giant-cell tumors of the spine and sacrum causing neurological symptoms.

    pain and neurological disturbances were the most frequent symptoms in patients with giant-cell tumors of the spine (4 cases) and sacrum (1 case). A good prognosis is possible in patients with vertebral tumor localization. There were no recurrences at follow-up 6 to 16 years after the first admission. The patient with a sacral tumor is alive more than 15 years after the first admission with some remaining neurological symptoms. Early surgical and/or radiation therapy is important. If institution of treatment is delayed more than three months after the onset of nerve root symptoms, there is a great risk of development of irreversible neurological lesions. ( info)

4/105. central nervous system involvement following type I aviator's bends complicated by complacency.

    A false sense of security surrounds the possibility of post-flight complications resulting from "aviator's bends." The accepted clinical clue that a patient is at risk for serious complications is the presence of some form of dysbarism at altitude. This principle has been inappropriately extended to imply that serious post-flight complications of the evolved gas syndrome only follow serious in-flight symptoms. This paper, in addition to reporting the occurrence of post-flight neurologic signs in a patient after Type I pain-only bends during an altitude chamber flight, also identifies a broader subtle complacency in the professional community that routinely deals with hypobarics. ( info)

5/105. neurologic manifestations of intravascular coagulation in patients with cancer. A clinicopathologic analysis of 12 cases.

    Among 1,459 autopsied patients with cancer, 12 had multifocal infarcts of the brain that appeared to be caused by intravascular coagulation. Most of these patients were women with leukemia or lymphoma, and all had a clinical course in which neurologic signs and symptoms were prominent. All had evidence of generalized brain disease (delirium and stupor or coma), and several also had focal brain disease (focal seizures, hemiparesis). All patients had laboratory evidence of coagulation abnormalities, although these were often not severe when neurologic symptoms began. Pathologically, there were multifocal hemorrhagic or ischemic infarcts in the distribution of several cerebral vessels, without a systemic source for cerebral emboli. fibrin thrombi were identified in cerebral vessels and in vessels of several other organs. The clinical findings fit the pathologic picture, and in most instances the correct diagnosis might have been made earlier had it been considered. ( info)

6/105. Acute anticholinergic syndrome due to Jimson seed ingestion. Clinical and laboratory observation in six cases.

    Ten patients presented with acute anticholinergic syndrome secondary to Jimson seed (datura stramonium) ingestion. Six of the 10 patients required hospitalization because of hyperpyrexia and severe neurologic derangement. Electroencephalograms recorded immediately after admission showed [1] slow wave activity, and [2] bizarre rhythmical bursts of high-voltage sharp wave activity; both of which rapidly resolved during the next 24 hours, as did the associated clinical findings of hyperreflexia, bilateral dorsiflexor Babinski responses, and decerebrate posturing. Previously unreported elevation of serum glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase and lactic dehydrogenase and prothrombin time prolongation are documented. The pathogenic mechanism accounting for abberation of these laboratory values remains undefined. All patients showed rapid clinical improvement; follow-up neurologic evaluation and electroencephalograms have been within normal limits. Because of the widespread availability and potential abuse of the Jimson seed, the clinical syndrome associated with its toxicity merits recognition. ( info)

7/105. Lateralized neurologic deficits and psychopathology in a turner syndrome patient.

    A turner syndrome patient has been studied by more extensive neuropsychological testing than has previously been reported with such patients. Testing indicates impairment of a variety of functions normally subserved by the right cerebral hemisphere. If replicated with other Turner patients, a lateralized neurologic deficit is implicated as part of the syndrome. Also, this case illustrates the importance of family support and sensitive professional treatment in determining the psychological outcome of this disorder. As an important therapeutic consideration, we describe psychologically detrimental effects of delayed estrogen treatment with an older turner syndrome patient. ( info)

8/105. osteopetrosis associated with familial paraplegia: report of a family.

    A clinical analysis of three members of a family with documented osteopetrosis and familial paraplegia is presented. All patients had a long history of increased bone density and slowly progressing paraparesis of both legs. A thorough review of the literature has revealed no other cases which presented with paraplegia without spinal cord compression. Although the etiologic factor or factors remain unknown, our review supports the contention that this is a distinct clinical entity. ( info)

9/105. Intracranial ectopic pituitary adenoma. Case report.

    The authors report a unique case of ectopic intracranial pituitary adenoma, associated clinically with generalized seizures and aggressive behavior. The lesion presumably arose from cells in the pars tuberalis and did not involve the sella turcica. ( info)

10/105. Cerebral manifestations of ergotism. Report of a case and review of the literature.

    A patient with diffuse and focal cerebral dysfunction was found to have absent peripheral pulses. Cerbral angiography revealed evidence of an arteritis with bilateral high grade carotid stenosis. When there was no laboratory confirmation of the arteritis, an iatrogenic etiology (ergotism) was suspected. This was later confirmed by the patient. The pertinent literature on ergotism is reviewed, and it is emphasized that ergotism may develop in patients on therapeutic doses of the drug. ( info)
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