Cases reported "Neuromuscular Diseases"

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1/742. Cervicomedullary astrocytoma simulating a neuromuscular disorder.

    A 12-year-old male developed progressive proximal upper extremity weakness over a 3- to 4-year period. The clinical findings of proximal upper extremity weakness and atrophy, prominent scapular winging, and no sensory deficits or upper motor neuron signs suggested a neuromuscular disorder. electromyography was consistent with a chronic denervating disorder involving the upper cervical anterior horn cells or their axons. A cervical magnetic resonance image revealed a large intramedullary mass extending from the inferior aspect of the fourth ventricle down to the level of T2. A biopsy of the lesion was consistent with a low-grade astrocytoma. ( info)

2/742. Chronic hepatitis b and neurogenic muscle disease: case report.

    A 17 year-old boy with chronic hepatitis b who developed left-sided muscle wasting is reported. When other possible known diseases as the cause of the neurogenic muscle disease were excluded it was hypothesised that there was a relation between the chronic hepatitis b infection and the neurogenic muscle disease. An immunopathogenesis could be explained by the presence of HBsAg in the cerebral spinal fluid. ( info)

3/742. Alternate four-point sweep-through gait--a technique for patients with combined neuromuscular and visual impairments: case reports.

    This article reports on two patients with combined neuromuscular and visual impairments who used a modification of the classic alternate four-point crutch gait, which allowed them to simultaneously explore the upcoming environment for obstacles or change in terrain while maintaining sufficient support for their lower limbs. The technique should be useful for patients with diabetic neuropathy/retinopathy combinations, multiple sclerosis with optic neuritis, and neurosarcoidosis and in elderly patients with multiple disabilities. ( info)

4/742. Neuromyotonia: an unusual presentation of intrathoracic malignancy.

    A 48 year old woman is described who presented with increasing muscular rigidity and who was found to have a mediastinal tumour. Electrophysiological studies revealed that the muscular stiffness resulted from very high frequency motor unit activity which outlasted voluntary effort, and which was abolished by nerve block. The abnormal activity may have arisen at the anterior horn cell level. Marked improvement followed the administration of diphenylhydantoin. ( info)

5/742. Selected legal issues in movement disorders.

    This article explores the long-standing question of whether trauma causes Parkinson's disease, and discusses the impact of informed consent and confidentiality in issues of genetic testing for Huntington's disease. Neurologists are appropriately concerned about the legal aspects of genetic testing, and this article attempts to address that subject from a medical-legal perspective. ( info)

6/742. A heterozygous splice site mutation in COL6A1 leading to an in-frame deletion of the alpha1(VI) collagen chain in an italian family affected by bethlem myopathy.

    Bethlem myopathy is a mild neuromuscular disorder with proximal muscular weakness and early flexion contractures. It is an autosomal dominant disease due to mutations in type VI collagen genes. We found a T-->C substitution at the 2 position of COL6A1 intron 14 in a family, leading to skipping of exon 14 and an in-frame deletion of 18 amino acids in the triple-helical domain of the alpha1(VI) collagen chain. The deletion included a cysteine residue believed to be involved in the assembly of type VI collagen dimers intracellularly, prior to the protein secretion. Analysis of the affected fibroblasts showed that the shortened alpha1(VI) collagen chains were synthesized but not secreted by the cells and that the amount of type VI collagen microfibrils deposited by the cells was reduced. The results suggest that the clinical phenotype is due to a reduction in the level of type VI collagen in the extracellular matrix. ( info)

7/742. A case of McLeod syndrome with chronic renal failure.

    A 50-year-old man with the rare McLeod syndrome, associated with glomerular lesion to the end stage of chronic renal failure and death, is reported. McLeod syndrome is an X-linked recessive disorder on the basis of abnormal expression of the Kell blood group antigens and absence of erythrocyte surface Kx antigen. Most often the clinical and pathological findings are retinitis pigmentosa to blindness, progressive chronic neuropathy, cortical atrophy, dilated cardiomyopathy, and glomerular lesion with chronic renal failure. Among the laboratory parameters the most important are very low level of cholesterol and triglycerides, then various numbers of acanthocytes in peripheral blood smears and sometimes in urine (as in our case). ( info)

8/742. Proximal myotonic myopathy (PROMM) presenting as myotonia during pregnancy.

    Proximal myotonic myopathy is a recently described autosomal dominant condition characterized by proximal myopathy, cataracts, intermittent myotonia, and myalgia. We report a further family with this condition. The proband and her two sisters presented with myotonia during pregnancy which resolved after each delivery. Two sisters experienced myalgia between each pregnancy. This relationship between pregnancy and symptom exacerbation suggests an intriguing hormonal influence in PROMM. ( info)

9/742. A novel de novo mutation in the triple helix of the COL6A3 gene in a two-generation Italian family affected by Bethlem myopathy. A diagnostic approach in the mutations' screening of type VI collagen.

    Bethlem myopathy is an autosomal dominant inherited disease producing a mild neuromuscular disorder, characterized mainly by muscular weakness and multiple joint contractures. Bethlem myopathy is caused by mutations in one of the three chains of collagen type vi. Here we report the clinical description and the molecular characterization of the defect in a two-generation Italian family in which a Gly-->Arg substitution disrupts the triple helix structure of the alpha 3 chain of collagen type vi, an ubiquitous glycoprotein of the extracellular matrix. In this family the identification of the mutation also allowed one to exclude the disease in the grandfather. It is noteworthy that the father of the proband carries a de novo mutation, the first described for Bethlem myopathy. ( info)

10/742. Autonomic failure and proximal skeletal myopathy in a patient with primary Sjogren syndrome.

    Autonomic failure and proximal skeletal myopathy are rare features of the Sjogren syndrome (SS). We describe a 51-year-old woman with primary SS who had development of esophageal dysmotility, urinary retention, severe orthostatism, and skeletal myopathy during a 3-month period after the diagnosis of SS. Her symptoms and signs responded well to corticosteroid therapy. Although dysfunction of the peripheral nervous system has a prevalence rate of 20% in patients with SS, most commonly the nerve dysfunction is a sensory deficit, and autonomic neuropathy is less frequent. Autonomic neuropathy due to SS may be underreported. The cause of our patient's myopathy remains undetermined. We speculate that the myopathy was due to either a form of polymyositis or an immune-mediated neuropathy with muscle involvement. ( info)
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