Cases reported "olfactory nerve diseases"

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1/2. Olfactory neuroepithelioma arising from the olfactory placode.

    The patient was a 54-year-old man, who had lost his sense of smell 6 years previously and had started to become forgetful about 6 months prior to presenting at hospital. MRI admission showed a large multicystic tumor with Gd-DTPA enhancement extending from the anterior cranial fossa through the sphenoid sinus and into the nasal cavity. Histopathological examination revealed extensive proliferation of small round cells that were divided by connective tissue septae. The tumor cells occasionally formed tubular structures, although no basement membranes were present. On immunostaining, round tumor cells were positive for neuron-specific enolase, synaptophysin, and chromogranin a, while cells forming tubules were positive for AE 1 and CAM 5.2. Almost all of the tumor cells were positive for Ber-EP4, and some of the epithelioid cells surrounding the tubular structures were also positive for luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH). Electron microscopy demonstrated sporadic intercellular junctions, many microtubules in the tumor cell processes, and clear- and dense-cored vesicles in the cytoplasm. Based on the results, this case appears to be the first documented neuroepithelioma with Ber-EP4- and LH-RH-positive cells arising from the olfactory placode. ( info)

2/2. Olfactory neuropathy in severe acute respiratory syndrome: report of A case.

    This case was a 27 years old female with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). She suffered from typical symptoms of SARS. Although she got almost complete recovery from most symptoms after treatment, she noted acute onset complete anosmia 3 weeks after the onset of her first symptom. Her brain MRI examination did not show definite lesion except an incidental finding of left temporal epidermoid cyst. Her anosmia persisted for more than 2 years during following up. Peripheral neuropathy and myopathy have been reported as a concomitant problem during the convalescent stage of SARS, while the sequel of permanent ansomia in SARS was not reported before. Olfactory neuropathy, which rarely occurred in typical peripheral neuropathy, could be a special type of neuropathy induced by corona virus infection in SARS. Olfactory function test should be taken into routine check-up for patients with SARS. The pathophysiology and therapeutic strategy of this special type of permanent olfactory dysfunction deserve further investigation. ( info)

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