Cases reported "Open Bite"

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11/92. Correction of severe vertical maxillary excess with anterior open bite and transverse maxillary deficiency.

    patients requiring correction of large anterior open bites have historically been among the most challenging treatments for orthodontists. Adding to that fundamental challenge for the adult patient in this case was vertical maxillary excess, a severe transverse maxillary deficiency as well as an arch length inadequacy, even though the patient had prior orthodontic treatment. The prior orthodontist had included arch expansion and extracted four first bicuspids, which limited current treatment options. Various treatment modalities that have traditionally been used to correct transverse maxillary deficiency and the accompanying arch length inadequacy include extractions, labial and buccal dental tipping, segmental maxillary osteotomies, and rapid maxillary expansion with or without surgical assistance. Transverse maxillary distraction osteogenesis is a modification (ie, using a latency period and specific rate and rhythm of distraction) of the surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion technique developed 25 years ago. This case demonstrates the relationship of transverse maxillary deficiency as well as vertical maxillary excess to apertognathia. Considerations regarding the use of segmental maxillary osteotomy vs transverse distraction osteogenesis are discussed. This case report illustrates the benefit of a team approach using transverse maxillary distraction osteogenesis, effective orthodontic mechanics, and orthognathic surgery to correct a severe dentofacial deformity. ( info)

12/92. Menkes disease: report of two cases.

    Menkes disease is a rare, autosomal recessive disorder characterized by neuronal degeneration, abnormal hair, malformed connective tissue, mental retardation, and a life span of three years. Previously reported dental findings include a high arched palate, delayed eruption of secondary dentition, and open bite. The case of twin seven-year-old males with Menkes disease is presented, along with previously unreported dental findings of spindle-shaped root resorption patterns on the primary maxillary central and lateral incisors. ( info)

13/92. An adult case of skeletal open bite with a severely narrowed maxillary dental arch.

    Surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion is proposed as an efficient approach for adult patients with transverse maxillary deficiency. This article reports the treatment of an 18-year, seven-month old male patient with an anterior open bite and a severely narrowed upper dental arch. A posterior crossbite was present on both sides. For the correction of the posterior crossbite, a lateral maxillary expansion of more than 8 mm was required. A surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion with Le Fort I corticotomy and mandibular setback with a sagittal splitting ramus osteotomy were determined as the treatment plan. The total treatment time was 24 months including five months of post-surgical observation. After the treatment, an acceptable occlusion was achieved with a Class I molar relationship. The amount of actual maxillary expansion was 6.3 mm at the canines and 9.7 mm at the first molars. The relapse of the expansion was 0.9 mm and 0.1 mm at the corresponding regions two years after the surgically assisted maxillary expansion. It is emphasized that surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion is a secure and efficient approach for achieving a desirable lateral maxillary expansion with stability in adult patients demonstrating transverse maxillary deficiency. Furthermore, it is suggested that longterm observation of the maxillary arch width after retention is of a great importance for the maintenance of the acceptable treatment outcome. ( info)

14/92. TMJ fractures in children: importance of functional activation of muscles in preventing mandibular asymmetries and facial maldevelopment.

    Normal development of the mandible as well as some portions of the upper jaw and face are related to good function of the masticatory apparatus: the integrity and interaction of bony and soft-tissue structures may be highly disturbed by injury of the TM joints and result in facial and occlusal disharmonies. When the neuromuscular system is in harmony, the mandibular muscles collectively exert their effect on both position and movement of the jaw and the loading of forces on the TM joints is optimal and balanced. Unfortunately, TMJ fractures may alter completely this balance with loss of the support to the mandible against the temporal component and loss of the functional effect of the lateral pterygoid muscle on the mandible. Disturbances in the harmonious interplay of the masticatory muscles may result in facial alteration and asymmetries. If not treated, the dysplastic patterns of growth continues and worsens during the years. ( info)

15/92. Bilateral open bite in dicygotic twins. A combined orthodontic-prosthetic approach.

    CASE REPORT: Dizygotic twins, male, 25 years of age, required treatment for an identical orthodontic diagnosis. diagnosis: Class III malocclusion with mesial molar relation and frontal edge-to-edge bite, lyrate upper dental arch, grouped cross-bite and bilateral open bite in the molar and bicuspid region, retention and lingual inclination respectively of the lower left second bicuspid, mesial inclination of both lower first molars. The severity of the malocclusion differed in the two brothers. THERAPY: Orthodontic treatment was successful concerning the transversal expansion and alignment of the maxillary dental arch, the functional relation of the anterior teeth, the transversally correct relation of the upper and lower dental arches and, following surgical removal of the lower second bicuspids, the reduction of crowding in the lower arch. An attempt was made to upright the molars in the mandibular arch and to close the lateral open bite by means of vertical elastics. However, the 10-month period of resistance to the therapy suggested, after a tongue protrusion habit had been ruled out, a diagnosis of ankylosis. Further orthodontic treatment was renounced and a prosthetic solution was pursued instead: the teeth in infraocclusion were treated with full ceramic overlays and, in the regions with residual gaps, with pontics (Empress II, Ivoclar, Schaan, liechtenstein), after minimally invasive preparation (confined to removal of existing fillings). CONCLUSION: This case is particularly interesting because the infrapositioned molars in both brothers were very likely due to ankylosis, suggesting a genetic cause. ( info)

16/92. Treatment of severe mandibular prognathism in combination with maxillary hypoplasia: case report.

    We performed a Le Fort I osteotomy and sagittal split ramus osteotomy (Obwegeser-Dal Pont) combined with mandibular anterior segmental osteotomy without tooth extraction for a patient with severe mandibular prognathism accompanied by a hypoplastic maxilla, anterior open bite and normal anterior mandibular vertical dimension. The results of facial appearance and occlusion were excellent. This combined surgical method appears to be satisfactory for treating severe mandibular prognathism with hypoplastic maxilla. ( info)

17/92. Improving quality of life with a team approach: a case report.

    An adolescent female who presented amelogenesis imperfecta with severe anterior open bite, long face, facial asymmetry, high angle, and Class III skeletal pattern was treated with an interdisciplinary (orthodontics, orthognathic surgery, and prosthodontics) treatment approach. Presurgical orthodontic treatment was followed by surgical maxillary posterior impaction with anterior advancement and mandibular setback operation with vertical chin reduction and genioplasty. After the surgery, anterior ceramic laminate veneers and posterior full ceramic onlay-crowns were performed. The results showed that function and esthetics were achieved successfully with interdisciplinary collaboration. ( info)

18/92. nickel allergy associated with a transpalatal arch appliance.

    AIM: The purpose of this article was to present a case in which nickel sensitivity of the oral mucosa was demonstrated during the use of a transpalatal arch appliance (TPA). CASE REPORT: An 11-year 8-month old post-menarchal female presented for orthodontic treatment with Class III buccal segments and bilateral open bite. The treatment plan consisted of placing a rapid palatal expansion appliance (RPE) and a TPA with soldered lateral tongue cribs, in order to eliminate her tongue thrusting habit. 8 months into treatment, the gingiva of the right posterior segment began to hypertrophy, particularly around the bands of the right first molar and premolar. A patch test of 5% nickel sulfate indicated a positive reaction to nickel. The treatment was finished without the use of nickel titanium wires and the mucosa reaction resolved. The patient had had her ear pierced at age 2 days old, which was 11 years before orthodontic treatment was initiated. The literature shows that this exposure may have been the sensitizing event. CONCLUSIONS: While the nickel sensitive patient may not present an extreme medical risk, the orthodontist must be aware of the problem and the likelihood of treating patients with this condition. It appears that the reaction may vary from patient to patient. The practitioner should possess a basic understanding of the occurrence rate, sex predilection, and signs and symptoms of allergy to nickel, and should be familiar with the best possible alternative modes of treatment, to provide the safest, most effective care possible in these cases. Practitioners should be aware that symptoms of nickel allergy may closely mimic those of typical gingival changes during orthodontic treatment of circumpubertal children. ( info)

19/92. Moulding of the generate to control open bite during mandibular distraction osteogenesis.

    Distraction osteogenesis of the craniofacial skeleton has become a widely accepted, safe, and effective means of craniofacial reconstructive surgery. Despite excellent results in general, there are still some uncertainties related to the procedure, such as development of an anterior open bite (AOB) during mandibular distraction. The aim of this study was to examine whether 'moulding of the generate', i.e. use of intermaxillary elastics during the active distraction phase is possible to close the mandibular plane angle and open bite. Three subjects, 13- and 15-year-old males and a 7-year-old female, underwent mandibular linear and angular bilateral distraction osteogenesis with moulding of the generate. Lateral cephalograms were obtained before the introduction of elastics and following distraction, once the activation was stopped and the patients were ready for the consolidation phase. Conventional cephalometric measurements were used to assess possible changes in the mandibular plane angle and incisor position. Three different anchorage systems (dental, orthopaedic, and skeletal) were used for placement of the intermaxillary elastics. Cephalometric examination showed that the mandibular plane angle was decreased during active distraction osteogenesis with the introduction of elastics and angulation of the distraction device. Depending on the type of elastic anchorage system, smaller or greater amounts of extrusion of the incisors were noted. Moulding of the generate during active distraction can be performed to reduce the mandibular plane angle and open bite. To prevent unwanted dentoalveolar changes from occurring during elastic traction, skeletal rather than dental fixation of the elastics is recommended. Intrusive mechanics may be incorporated into the orthodontic appliances to balance extrusive force by the moulding elastics. ( info)

20/92. Orthodontic-surgical treatment after posttraumatic bilateral condylectomy of the mandible in an adult patient.

    A posttraumatic open bite associated with a bird face is reported. Condylectomy was indicated in relation to the plurifragmentary fracture of the condyles with limitation of mandibular movement. Condylectomies were mandatory as a result of delayed maxillofacial surgical treatment, which was related to the poor general condition of the patient after trauma. Functional disorder recovery and aesthetic deformity correction were planned by a team approach between orthodontists and maxillofacial surgeons with the support of a logopedist for the postural-related muscle problems. The main practical and theoretical problems presented by the clinical case were a result of the need to restore the occlusal relations and to avoid recurrence of open bite in this patient. The patient presented a wide alteration of muscular function and a strength fibrotic retraction with alteration in the relationship between upper and lower jaws and retrusion of the mandible associated to open bite. Orthodontic treatment was carried with no impact on the upper and lower axis, avoiding orthodontic correction of the open bite. Surgery corrected both the open bite and the bird face by means of bilateral sagittal split osteotomies. Wiring of the mandibular osteotomies and intermaxillary fixation allowed positioning of the mandibular ramus bilaterally because of the fibrosis and muscular action-related forces without resulting in a similar rotation of the mandible with the risk of recurrence. Myotherapy and logopedic support minimized the risk of recurrence, improved reduction of muscular tension with the resolution of the lip incompetence, and allowed functional recovery of mandibular movements. ( info)
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