Cases reported "orbital fractures"

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1/356. Growing skull fracture of the orbital roof. Case report.

    Growing skull fractures are rare complications of head trauma and very rarely arise in the skull base. The clinical and radiological finding and treatment of a growing fracture of the orbital roof in a 5-year-old boy are reported, and the relevant literature is reviewed. The clinical picture was eyelid swelling. Computed tomography (CT) scan was excellent for demonstrating the bony defect in the orbital roof. Frontobasal brain injury seems to play an important role in the pathogenesis of the fracture growth. Growing skull fracture of the orbital roof should be considered in the differential diagnosis in cases of persistent ocular symptoms. craniotomy with excision of gliotic brain and granulation tissue, dural repair and cranioplasty is the treatment of choice. ( info)

2/356. Acute orbital compartment syndrome after lateral blow-out fracture effectively relieved by lateral cantholysis.

    PURPOSE: To report the observation of an acute traumatic orbital compartment syndrome in an 80-year-old man. methods: Lateral canthotomy and cantholysis. Computed x-ray tomography. RESULTS: Unilateral proptosis, blindness, a frozen globe and a dilated pupil developed within one hour after a blunt trauma to the left orbital region. Surgery two hours later resulted in normal orbital tension and near-complete recovery of functions. An orbital hematoma was found overlying a lateral blow-out fracture. CONCLUSION: Under favorable conditions, the orbital compartment syndrome can be effectively relieved by lateral canthotomy and cantholysis. The present and previous reports suggest that two hours of orbital ischemia is near the critical time limit for recovery of full visual function. ( info)

3/356. Less common orbital fracture patterns: the role of computed tomography in the management of depression of the inferior oblique origin and lateral rectus involvement in blow-in fractures.

    During the past decade, advances in radiographic imaging have made it possible for the surgeon managing orbital fractures to adopt a rational therapeutic strategy based on a knowledge of alterations in surgical anatomy secondary to traumatic injury. To illustrate the value of computed tomography in the surgeon's armamentarium for management of orbital fractures, cases are presented in which imaging proved decisive in planning a course of therapy. Two patients presented with two types of isolated lateral blow-in fracture, an uncommon fracture pattern. The other cases underscore the value of defining involvement of the inferior oblique origin and lateral rectus muscles in imaging complex orbital fractures, issues not emphasized in earlier literature. Although diplopia alone does not always warrant surgical intervention, diplopia in the context of computed tomography-defined muscle entrapment or muscle origin displacement justifies operative therapy. These cases demonstrate the value of computed tomography in directing surgical therapy with resolution of diplopia and prevention and correction of enophthalmos. ( info)

4/356. CSF orbitorrhoea with tension pneumocephalus.

    A seventy eight year old man sustained penetrating injury to right orbit about 15 years ago. Later he developed right orbital infection leading to phthisis bulbi. Two months before admission he developed CSF leak from the right orbit, tension pneumocephalous and meningitis. A rare case of CSF orbitorrhoea is reported here along with the discussion on mechanisms and management. ( info)

5/356. Long-term sequelae after surgery for orbital floor fractures.

    A surgical technique involving exact repositioning and rigid fixation is required for the reduction of fractures of the orbital floor. Even then, sequelae may be present long after the trauma. The aim of this study was to establish the frequency and type of sequelae after surgery for orbital floor fractures and to investigate the extent to which the method of surgery had any impact on the severity of the sequelae. A questionnaire was sent to all 107 patients (response rate 77%) 1 to 5 years after the injury. Further clinical data were obtained from the patients' charts. Eighty-three percent of the patients were affected by some kind of permanent sequelae in terms of sensibility, vision, and/or physical appearance. A high frequency of diplopia (36%) was related to the reconstruction of the orbital floor with a temporary "supporting" antral packing in the maxillary sinus, a technique which has now been abandoned at our department in favor of orbital restoration with sheets of porous polyethylene. Our conclusion is that, because long-term sequelae are common, the surgical technique must be subjected to continuous quality control to minimize future problems for this group of patients. ( info)

6/356. Repair of orbital floor fractures with hydroxyapatite block scaffolding.

    PURPOSE: To determine the efficacy of using a scaffold of hydroxyapatite blocks within the maxillary sinus to treat patients with large orbital floor fractures and secondary vertical globe dystopia. methods: Case series of five patients. Hydroxyapatite blocks were stacked within the maxillary antrum to support the reconstructed orbital floor. RESULTS: All patients had good results, though mild residual enophthalmos persisted in three patients. The orbital floor implants and globe positions remained stable during follow-up intervals ranging from 46 to 65 months. No adverse postoperative complications, such as sinusitis, developed. CONCLUSIONS: Hydroxyapatite block scaffolding is a useful alternative to metallic floor implants and autologous bone grafts in the reconstruction of large traumatic orbital floor defects associated with vertical globe dystopia. ( info)

7/356. Benefits of stereolithography in orbital reconstruction.

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the benefits of the stereolithography (SLA) modeling system in the evaluation and surgical planning of selected bony orbital pathology. DESIGN: Two case reports. PARTICIPANTS: One patient presented with a displaced left orbital roof fracture into his orbit causing globe compression and binocular vertical diplopia. A second patient underwent removal of his right orbital floor, medial wall, and inferior portion of his lateral wall during excision of a cylindrical cell papilloma of the paranasal sinuses. Postoperatively, he suffered from globe ptosis and binocular oblique diplopia. INTERVENTION: Stereolithographic models of the patients' orbits were obtained from computed tomography data to better assess the bony orbital pathology. In the second patient, the model was used as a template to create a temporary custom fit prosthesis to repair the defect of his orbital walls. RESULTS: The SLA models were useful in evaluating the dimensions of the bony defects and in preoperative surgical planning. Intraoperatively, the SLA models facilitated orbital surgical rehabilitation. Postoperatively, both patients noted resolution of their diplopia after reconstruction of more normal bony anatomy. CONCLUSIONS: In selected cases, SLA offers highly accurate models of the bony orbit for preoperative evaluation, surgical planning, and teaching and can act as a template for custom prosthesis manufacturing. This technology increases the orbital surgeon's options in managing complex orbital pathology. ( info)

8/356. Management of traumatic luxation of the globe. A case report.

    PURPOSE: To report the management of a patient who had LeFort type III fractures and traumatic luxation of the globe with avulsion of the optic nerve and all extraocular muscles except for the medial rectus. methods: Eight hours after the trauma, the detached and retracted superior and lateral recti muscles could be found and sutured to their original insertions. The inferior rectus could not be retrieved. RESULTS: Although the left eye had no light perception, most of its motility was restored resulting in an unblemished cosmesis. CONCLUSION: Avoiding primary enucleation helped to alleviate the psychological burden of the trauma on the patient. In case of the eventual development of phthisis bulbi, the patient will have a chance to be fitted with a prosthesis over his own eye with a resulting better motility. ( info)

9/356. Manifestations of factor viii inhibitor in the head and neck.

    hemophilia a is the most severe of the inherited bleeding disorders. Otolaryngologists are frequently asked to assist in the care of a patient with this disorder who has intractable bleeding from sites in the head and neck. This disorder is transmitted in an X-linked recessive manner and results from factor viii deficiency. Factor replacement therapy has contributed much to the management of acute bleeding episodes and the prevention of long-term sequelae in patients with hemophilia. A consequence of factor replacement therapy that occurs in as much as 16% of patients is the development of antibodies to the exogenous factor. These antibodies inactivate any supplemental factor viii, resulting in continued bleeding despite attempts at replacement therapy. This poses an extremely challenging clinical problem because other standard therapies have had limited usefulness. Activated prothrombin complex has been shown to be efficacious in the treatment of patients with inhibitors. This has led to the production of factor viii inhibitor bypassing activity (FEIBA), which contains activated forms of factors II, VII, IX, and X. The mechanism of action of this preparation remains unknown, but it seems to bypass the need for factor viii in the clotting cascade. factor viii inhibitor bypassing activity is not as effective as factor viii concentrates in patients with normally responsive hemophilia, and patients with low inhibitor levels may be given larger doses of factor viii. disseminated intravascular coagulation is most often mentioned as a potential complication of the administration of factor viii inhibitor bypassing activity, although it has been rarely reported. Otolaryngologists should be familiar with this clinical phenomenon and understand its implications. Two patients with bleeding diatheses were recently treated at our institution. ( info)

10/356. Orbital blowout fracture with persistent mobility deficit due to fibrosis of the inferior rectus muscle and perimuscular tissue.

    A case of orbital blowout fracture accompanied by fibrosis of the inferior rectus muscle resulting in an irreversible orbital mobility deficit is reported. An 8-year-old girl with an orbital blowout fracture was treated with steroids for 10 days, as with other cases in our department. She exhibited a disturbance of vertical eye movement and a positive forced duction test result. Although surgery was performed on day 13, and on day 27 due to poor recovery after the first operation, almost no improvement of the ocular movement was noted. The results of a traction test, performed during the second operation, suggested that the inferior rectus muscle had adhered to the periosteum. magnetic resonance imaging performed 3 days after the second operation revealed fibrosis of the inferior rectus muscle and perimuscular tissue, resulting in an irreversible disturbance of the vertical ocular movement. The present findings suggest that the need for and timing of surgery in patients with blowout fractures should be determined on an individual basis. ( info)
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