Cases reported "Osteogenesis Imperfecta"

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1/408. Extension of phenotype associated with structural mutations in type I collagen: siblings with juvenile osteoporosis have an alpha2(I)Gly436 --> Arg substitution.

    Mutations in the type I collagen genes have been identified as the cause of all four types of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). We now report a mutation that extends the phenotype associated with structural abnormalities in type I collagen. Two siblings presented with a history of back pain and were diagnosed with juvenile osteoporosis, based on clinical and radiological examination. Radiographs showed decreased lumbar bone density and multiple compression fractures throughout the thoracic and lumbar spines of both patients. One child has moderate short stature and mild neurosensory hearing loss. However, neither child has incurred the long bone fractures characteristic of OI. Protein studies demonstrated electrophoretically abnormal type I collagen in samples from both children. Enzymatic cleavage of rna:rna hybrids identified a mismatch in type I collagen alpha2 (COL1A2) mRNA. dna sequencing of COL1A2 cDNA subclones defined the mismatch as a single-base mutation (1715G --> A) in both children. This mutation predicts the substitution of arginine for glycine at position 436 (G436R) in the helical domain of the alpha2(I) chain. Analysis of genomic dna identified the mutation in the asymptomatic father, who is presumably a germ-line mosaic carrier. The presence of the same heterozygous mutation in two siblings strongly suggests that the probands display the full phenotype. Taken together, the clinical, biochemical, and molecular findings of this study extend the phenotype associated with type I collagen mutations to cases with only spine manifestations and variable short stature into adolescence. ( info)

2/408. Basilar impression complicating osteogenesis imperfecta type IV: the clinical and neuroradiological findings in four cases.

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the clinical and neuroradiological features of basilar impression in patients with osteogenesis imperfecta type IV. methods: Four patients with basilar impression were ascertained in a population study of osteogenesis imperfecta. All four had detailed clinical and neuroradiological examination with both CT and MRI of the craniocervical junction and posterior fossa structures. RESULTS: All four showed significant compression of the posterior fossa structures and surgical decompression was performed with relief of symptoms. CONCLUSION: Symptoms of cough headache and trigeminal neuralgia occurring in patients with osteogenesis imperfecta are indications for detailed clinical and neuroradiological investigation to document basilar impression. ( info)

3/408. Type I osteogenesis imperfecta: diagnostic difficulties.

    A 65-year-old woman presented with vertebral fractures of the lumbar spine and a history of pathological fractures following minor trauma, which had occurred before the onset of menopause. Her past medical history was significant for intermittent low back pain since childhood, which was attributed to thoracolumbar scoliosis. A diagnosis of unclassifiable osteoporosis was made until invasive diagnostic procedures suggested a mild form of type I osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). In unclear or atypical perimenopausal osteoporosis and diagnosis of OI should be considered. ( info)

4/408. osteogenesis imperfecta with mitral insufficiency due to ballooning of the mitral valve. A case report.

    A further case of osteogenesis imperfecta with valvular heart disease is added to the 12 already reported in the literature. The presence of a dilated mitral annulus and a ballooned mitral leaflet in this case together with the findings reported in the literature leave little doubt as to the relationship between the valvular lesion and the underlying connective tissue disorder. ( info)

5/408. osteosarcoma of the scapula arising in osteogenesis imperfecta.

    A case of osteosarcoma arising in the scapula of a 37 year old woman with severe congenital sporadic white sclera type osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is presented. osteosarcoma occurs as a sporadic rather than a related occurrence in patients with OI. A delay in the diagnosis of osteosarcoma may occur due to the similarity in symptomatology between the two conditions and because of the difficulty in differentiating between hyperplastic callus and tumor using conventional radiographic imaging techniques. ( info)

6/408. Ministernotomy for aortic valve replacement in a patient with osteogenesis imperfecta.

    Open heart operations in patients with osteogenesis imperfecta are associated with increased morbidity and mortality resulting from tissue friability and bone brittleness. We used a ministernotomy approach for aortic valve replacement in a patient with osteogenesis imperfecta, with clear benefits and a satisfactory outcome. ( info)

7/408. MRI and CT features of hyperplastic callus in osteogenesis imperfecta tarda.

    We describe the MRI and CT findings of hyperplastic callus formation simulating a tumour of pelvis in patient with osteogenesis imperfecta tarda. Possible differential diagnoses and the impact of different imaging techniques on the correct diagnosis are discussed. ( info)

8/408. Redefinition of exon 7 in the COL1A1 gene of type I collagen by an intron 8 splice-donor-site mutation in a form of osteogenesis imperfecta: influence of intron splice order on outcome of splice-site mutation.

    Most splice-site mutations lead to a limited array of products, including exon skipping, use of cryptic splice-acceptor or -donor sites, and intron inclusion. At the intron 8 splice-donor site of the COL1A1 gene, we identified a G 1-->A transition that resulted in the production of several splice products from the mutant allele. These included one in which the upstream exon 7 was extended by 96 nt, others in which either intron 8 or introns 7 and 8 were retained, one in which exon 8 was skipped, and one that used a cryptic donor site in exon 8. To determine the mechanism by which exon-7 redefinition might occur, we examined the order of intron removal in the region of the mutation by using intron/exon primer pairs to amplify regions of the precursor nuclear mRNA between exon 5 and exon 10. Removal of introns 5, 6, and 9 was rapid. Removal of intron 8 usually preceded removal of intron 7 in the normal gene, although, in a small proportion of copies, the order was reversed. The proportion of abnormal products suggested that exon 7 redefinition, intron 7 plus intron 8 inclusion, and exon 8 skipping all represented products of the impaired rapid pathway, whereas the intron-8 inclusion product resulted from use of the slow intron 7-first pathway. The very low-abundance cryptic exon 8 donor site product could have arisen from either pathway. These results suggest that there is commitment of the pre-mRNA to the two pathways, independent of the presence of the mutation, and that the order and rate of intron removal are important determinants of the outcome of splice-site mutations and may explain some unusual alterations. ( info)

9/408. Co-existence of osteogenesis imperfecta and hyperparathyroidism.

    osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) and hyperparathyroidism (HTP) are disorders affecting the skeletal system and calcium metabolism not evidently related to one another. We report a case in which both OI and HPT were present. Our female patient presented with hypercalcaemia (S-Ca2 1.59 mmol/l; normal range 1.15-1.30) and 4-gland parathyroid hyperplasia at 30 years of age. Since her first year she had fractures, blue sclera, hypermobile joints, short stature (height 1.51 m, weight 49.5 kg) but normal hearing, and dentiogenesis imperfecta (tooth disease caused by defective formation of dentin) was absent. This patient bears many similarities with the 5 patients reported previously but it is the only patient, to our knowledge, with OI and early onset of HPT (30 year old female). We have found the OI to be type 1. A minor improvement of the rate of bone turnover 10 months after parathyroidectomy indicates the HPT to be primary and suggests the OI type 1 and pHPT to be two different calcium metabolic diseases incidentally occurring in the same patient. ( info)

10/408. Mild hypophosphatasia mimicking severe osteogenesis imperfecta in utero: bent but not broken.

    We describe a fifth instance of hypophosphatasia presenting with prenatal findings suggestive of a very severe bone dysplasia but with a subsequently benign course. Spontaneous improvement of long-bone angulation began prenatally. The postnatal course has been encouraging. This sixth clinical form of hypophosphatasia, which we suggest should be called the benign prenatal form of hypophosphatasia, should be added to the differential diagnostic possibilities considered when angulation or bowing of long bones is discovered prenatally. ( info)
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