Cases reported "Paresis"

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1/473. Lessons to be learned: a case study approach. Primary hyperparathyroidism simulating an acute severe polyneuritis.

    The case is presented of a 65 year old lady with recent onset of neuromuscular manifestations, comprising paraparesis, areflexia and unsteady gait, along with episodes of slurring of speech and diplopia, later confirmed to be due to severe hypercalcaemia--which itself was caused by primary hyperparathyroidism. Restoration of normocalcaemia, by means of rehydration and bisphosphonate therapy, resulted in clinical improvement--whilst subsequent parathyroidectomy was followed by complete resolution of all symptoms. In order to make prompt differentiation between the neurological sequelae of hyperparathyroidism and a primary neurological disorder, a high index of suspicion is required. An urgent serum calcium assay, as part of a bone profile, is mandatory in patients who present with neurological symptoms--especially the elderly, amongst whom hyperparathyroidism is especially common. ( info)

2/473. Arteriovenous and lymphatic malformations, linear verrucous epidermal nevus and mild overgrowth: another hamartoneoplastic syndrome?

    We report a 22 year old female presenting with slowly progressive paraparesis, who appeared to have many (mainly subcutaneous) hamartomas. The neurological symptoms were caused by intraspinal masses and arteriovenous malformations. In addition, she had mild overgrowth of one leg and lymph vessel malformations. This combination of symptoms resembles proteus syndrome, but is different in symptomatology and progression and may be yet another hamartoneoplastic syndrome. ( info)

3/473. Fisher syndrome with tetraparesis and antibody to GQ1b: evidence for motor nerve terminal block.

    A Fisher syndrome (FS) patient with antibody to tetrasyaloganglioside GQ1b (GQ1b) developed late limb weakness. Serial motor conduction velocities (MCVs) showed a marked reduction of distal compound muscle action potential (CMAP) amplitudes, worse at 2-3 weeks, followed by a dramatic increase in week 5. Motor conduction velocities were always in the normal range, distal motor latencies changed only slightly, and conduction block in intermediate nerve segments was absent. These electrophysiological data might suggest an axonal neuropathy or a distal demyelinating conduction block. However, the dramatic increase of distal CMAP amplitudes over a short time without significant changes of distal motor latencies, CMAP duration, and morphology indicate that weakness in this FS patient might be due to a block of acetylcholine release from motor terminals, possibly mediated by anti-GQ1b antibodies. ( info)

4/473. Monoparesis of the right hand following a localised infarct in the left "precentral knob".

    A patient with acute weakness of the righ arm showed a focal lesion on MRI in the left 'precentral knob', not visible on CT. ( info)

5/473. Posterior interosseous nerve palsy following placement of the compass elbow hinge for acute instability: a case report.

    We describe a case of posterior interosseous nerve palsy that developed after application of a hinged elbow external fixation device. Our hypothesis that forearm pronation during ulnar half pin insertion may have been causative is supported by anatomic findings noted during subsequent cadaveric dissection. Based on our observations we recommend that the ulnar half pins required with this device be inserted with the forearm in supination. ( info)

6/473. Stereotactic radiosurgery for cavernous sinus cavernous hemangioma--case report.

    A 40-year-old female presented with cavernous sinus cavernous hemangioma manifesting as left abducens and trigeminal nerve pareses. magnetic resonance imaging revealed a left cavernous sinus tumor. The tumor was partially removed. Histological examination of the specimen confirmed cavernous hemangioma. radiosurgery was performed using the gamma knife. The tumor markedly decreased in size after radiosurgery and morbidity was avoided. cavernous sinus cavernous hemangiomas may be difficult to treat surgically due to intraoperative bleeding and cranial nerve injury. Stereotactic radiosurgery can be used either as an adjunct treatment to craniotomy, or as the primary treatment for small cavernous sinus cavernous hemangioma. ( info)

7/473. neuromuscular blockade after ingestion of tree tobacco (Nicotiana glauca).

    Two patients presented with life-threatening motor paresis after ingestion of leaves from the tree tobacco plant (Nicotiana glauca ). In addition to severe muscle weakness, bulbar palsies, flexor muscle spasm, hypertension, nausea, vomiting, and respiratory compromise were reported or observed. These are the fourth and fifth reported cases of a toxicologic emergency apparently caused by the alkaloid, anabasine, an isomer of nicotine found in the tobacco tree plant. The effects of this plant ingestion can mimic other better-known causes of paresis or paralysis. In areas of the country where the plant is indigenous, this toxicologic condition should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with paresis or paralysis. ( info)

8/473. abducens nerve palsy complicating pregnancy: a case report.

    We report a case presented at 38 weeks gestation with abducens nerve palsy. No specific pathology was found. After reviewing all the previously reported cases, hypertension is found to be a common factor in all cases presenting in late pregnancy. The clinical course is benign and all resolved after delivery. ( info)

9/473. Nontraumatic acute spinal subdural hematoma: report of five cases and review of the literature.

    Acute subdural spinal hematoma occurs rarely; however, when it does occur, it may have disastrous consequences. The authors assessed the outcome of surgery for this lesion in relation to causative factors and diagnostic imaging (computerized tomography [CT], CT myelography), as well as eventual preservation of the subarachnoid space. The authors reviewed 106 cases of nontraumatic acute subdural spinal hematoma (101 published cases and five of their own) in terms of cause, diagnosis, treatment, and long-term outcome. Fifty-one patients (49%) were men and 55 (51%) were women. In 70% of patients the spinal segment involved was in the lumbar or thoracolumbar spine. In 57 cases (54%) there was a defect in the hemostatic mechanism. spinal puncture was performed in 50 patients (47%). Late surgical treatment was performed in 59 cases (56%): outcome was good in 25 cases (42%) (in 20 of these patients preoperative neurological evaluation had shown mild deficits or paraparesis, and three patients had presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage [SAH]). The outcome was poor in 34 cases (58%; 23 patients with paraplegia and 11 with SAH). The formation of nontraumatic acute spinal subdural hematomas may result from coagulation abnormalities and iatrogenic causes such as spinal puncture. Their effect on the spinal cord and/or nerve roots may be limited to a mere compressive mechanism when the subarachnoid space is preserved and the hematoma is confined between the dura and the arachnoid. It seems likely that the theory regarding the opening of the dural compartment, verified at the cerebral level, is applicable to the spinal level too. Early surgical treatment is always indicated when the patient's neurological status progressively deteriorates. The best results can be obtained in patients who do not experience SAH. In a few selected patients in whom neurological impairment is minimal, conservative treatment is possible. ( info)

10/473. Successful surgical treatment of the brachial plexus paresis in leiomyosarcoma of the subclavian artery.

    Described here is a unique case of surgical treatment of brachial plexus paresis in a 63-year-old female patient. The paretic condition was considerably improved by excision of a tumor in the upper mediastinum, growing from the left subclavian artery, and classified as leiomyosarcoma. ( info)
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