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1/254. The coincidence of schizophrenia and Parkinsonism: some neurochemical implications.

    The hypothesis has recently been advanced that increased activity of central dopaminergic mechanisms underlies the symptomatology of the schizophrenias. The evidence that dopaminergic transmission in the corpus striatum is impaired in Parkinson's disease suggests that observations on the relationship between Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia may illuminate the patholophysiology of the latter disease. Four cases are reported in which an illness with schizophrenic features developed in the setting of longstanding Parkinson's disease; attention is drawn to earlier reports of schizophrenic illnesses occurring as postencephalitic sequelae in the presence of a parkinsonian syndrome. These observations appear to conflict with the view that increased dopamine release in the striatum is necessary for the expression of schizophrenic psychopathology, but do not exclude the possibility that increased transmission may occur at other dopaminergic sites in the brain, for example the nucleus accumbens, tuberculum olfactorium or cerebral cortex. Similarly the dopamine receptor blockade hypothesis of the therapeutic effects of neuroleptic drugs cannot be maintained with respect to an action in the striatum in view of the differences between the actions of thioridazine and chlorpromazine in this structure, but may be tenable for actions at extra-straital sites. ( info)

2/254. manganese intoxication during total parenteral nutrition: report of two cases and review of the literature.

    We report two cases of manganese (Mn) intoxication during total parenteral nutrition including manganese (Mn). Both patients showed parkinsonism with psychiatric symptoms and elevated serum Mn levels. T1-weighted magnetic resonance images (MRI) revealed symmetrical high intensity lesions in the globus pallidus. Discontinuation of Mn supplementation and levodopa treatment improved the symptoms and MRI abnormalities in the both patients. Thus, careful attention should be paid to the long-term intravenous administration of Mn. ( info)

3/254. Parkinsonism associated with sjogren's syndrome: three cases and a review of the literature.

    sjogren's syndrome (SS) is a common multisystem autoimmune disorder. As with other autoimmune disorders such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), SS has been associated with a wide range of neurologic abnormalities. Parkinsonism has been reported previously in five SS patients. We present three additional cases of SS with parkinsonism. ( info)

4/254. apomorphine and levodopa challenge in patients with a focal midbrain lesion.

    Three patients who presented with parkinsonian signs resulting from a focal midbrain lesion are reported. In all patients parkinsonian features occurred acutely and improved following acute challenge with apomorphine but not with levodopa. Remission of parkinsonian signs occurred spontaneously to a different degree. Inconsistent clinical response following administration of levodopa has been well documented in patients with focal midbrain lesions associated with parkinsonian signs; however, the efficacy of apomorphine has not been tested before. Anatomic or etiologic features do not allow us to predict in which cases parkinsonian signs secondary to a midbrain lesion would respond to levodopa or to dopamine agonists. A trial with apomorphine is warranted in all such cases. ( info)

5/254. An autopsy case of myotonic dystrophy with mental disorders and various neuropathologic features.

    An autopsy case of myotonic dystrophy (MD) is reported. The patient was a 58-year-old male. He presented with muscular weakness and muscular atrophy at the age of 33 and was diagnosed as having MD from myotonic symptoms (i.e. percussion and grip myotonia) at 49 years old. mental disorders including a delusional hallucinatory state, mental slowness, indifference, and lack of spontaneity as well as visual cognitive impairments were noted at the age of 55. He showed Parkinsonism and died of septic shock. T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated diffuse cortical atrophy with a marked frontal atrophy and high-intensity signals in the white matter. Single photon emission computed tomography demonstrated hypoperfusion in the frontal cortex. Neuropathologic observation revealed neuronal loss in the superficial layer of the frontal and parietal cortices and extensive neuronal loss in the occipital cortex, intracytoplasmic inclusion body in the nerve cell of the medial thalamic nuclei, neuronal loss and presence of lewy bodies in the substantia nigra and locus ceruleus corresponding to the pathologic features of Parkinson's disease, as well as abnormalities of myelin in the white matter. The present case suggests that in MD brain, various neuropathologic changes may occur and they contribute to the mental disorders. ( info)

6/254. Constrictive pericarditis and pleuropulmonary disease linked to ergot dopamine agonist therapy (cabergoline) for Parkinson's disease.

    Cabergoline is one of several ergoline dopamine agonist medications used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). We diagnosed constrictive pericarditis (CP) in a patient with PD receiving cabergoline therapy (10 mg daily), who had symptoms and signs of congestive heart failure (CHF). In the absence of previous reported cases of this condition linked to ergoline drugs, cabergoline was not initially identified as the cause. Shortly thereafter, however, the patient developed of a severe pleuropulmonary inflammatory-fibrotic syndrome, a recognized complication of ergoline medications, thus suggesting a common pathogenesis due to cabergoline therapy. To our knowledge, this is the first case in the English literature, although we speculate that CP may be more common than reported among patients with PD who are treated with an ergoline drug (cabergoline, bromocriptine, pergolide, or lisuride). The diagnosis of CP is difficult and requires a high level of suspicion; symptoms may masquerade as CHF due to common mechanisms such as coronary artery disease. In patients with PD who are taking not only cabergoline but also one of the other ergoline drugs, CP should be suspected if symptoms of CHF develop. ( info)

7/254. Acute and reversible parkinsonism due to organophosphate pesticide intoxication: five cases.

    OBJECTIVE: To describe five patients who developed acute and reversible parkinsonism following organophosphate (OP) pesticide exposure, and to consider whether this syndrome represents a rare sequela of such exposure in genetically susceptible individuals. BACKGROUND: Several toxins are known to produce parkinsonism following acute exposure. Although case-control studies have implicated OP pesticides in the etiology of PD, acute parkinsonism following brief pesticide exposure has never been reported. methods: The authors describe the clinical syndrome affecting five patients who presented with recent OP exposure and symptoms of an acute akinetic-rigid syndrome. RESULTS: All patients developed parkinsonism that resembled PD clinically except for poor response to levodopa. Three genetically related patients were exposed to pesticides in a common environment before onset of parkinsonism; other family members remained unaffected. Other secondary causes of parkinsonism were excluded. Four patients recovered completely without treatment, and one patient was lost to follow-up. One patient experienced repeated episodes of parkinsonism with inadvertent reexposure to a pesticide-contaminated environment. CONCLUSION: The clinical course of these five patients suggests their syndrome represents a heretofore undescribed toxic effect of OP pesticides. Our observations strengthen epidemiologic studies implicating OP pesticides in the etiology of PD. A genetic susceptibility to OP pesticide-induced parkinsonism may account for three family members developing this syndrome. ( info)

8/254. Parkinsonism, pyramidal signs, polyneuropathy, and cognitive decline after long-term occupational solvent exposure.

    It is well known that exposure to manganese, solvents, or carbon monoxide in an occupational setting may lead to central nervous system damage and parkinsonism. The most important solvents in this respect are methanol, toluene, carbon disulfide, and n-hexane. We describe three patients who had been exposed to various solvents for more than 20 years (25, 34, and 46 years). They presented with parkinsonism, pyramidal signs, mild cognitive decline, and unresponsiveness to levodopa. Two patients had a predominantly axonal and sensory polyneuropathy of the lower legs with fasciculations in one of them. Parkinsonian features were progressive, even after the patients had stopped work. We present clinical data, neuropsychological findings, and results of brain computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging, electroneuromyography, evoked potentials, single photon emission computed tomography, and positron-emission tomography. There is growing evidence that various organic solvents give rise to a parkinsonism syndrome with pyramidal features in susceptible individuals. ( info)

9/254. Diffuse lewy body disease presenting as multiple system atrophy.

    OBJECTIVES: The majority of patients with diffuse lewy body disease have cognitive or psychiatric manifestations as part of their initial presentation. A sizable minority present with parkinsonian features alone. Autonomic features may also occur, typically after the development of cognitive changes. We aim to demonstrate that diffuse lewy body disease may rarely also present with parkinsonism accompanied by marked autonomic dysfunction in the absence of significant cognitive or psychiatric abnormalities. methods: Case report based on a retrospective chart review and neuropathological examination. RESULTS: We report on a patient in whom a clinical diagnosis of multiple system atrophy was made based on a presentation of parkinsonism with prominent and early autonomic involvement. The former included postural tremor, rigidity and bradykinesia, while the latter consisted of repeated falls due to orthostasis and the subsequent development of urinary incontinence midway through the course of her illness. She was poorly tolerant of dopaminergic therapy due to accentuated orthostasis. Benefit from levodopa was limited and only evident when attempted withdrawal resulted in increased rigidity. There was no history of spontaneous or drug-induced hallucinations, delusions or fluctuating cognition, and in contrast to the prominence and progression of her parkinsonian and autonomic features over the first several years, cognitive impairment did not occur until the final stages of her illness, seven years after the onset of initial symptoms. Neuropathological examination revealed numerous lewy bodies in both neocortical as well as subcortical structures consistent with a diagnosis of diffuse lewy body disease. There was marked neuronal loss in the substantia nigra as well as the autonomic nuclei of the brainstem and spinal cord. CONCLUSIONS: In addition to cognitive, psychiatric, and parkinsonian presentations, diffuse lewy body disease may present with parkinsonism and prominent autonomic dysfunction, fulfilling proposed criteria for the striatonigral form of MSA. ( info)

10/254. Acute hypernatremia and neuroleptic malignant syndrome in parkinson disease.

    neuroleptic malignant syndrome is a clinical syndrome characterized by fever, muscle rigidity, and mutism. Some patients with neuroleptic syndrome may have elevated creatine phosphokinase values and abnormal liver aminotransferase values. precipitating factors are important clues for prompt diagnosis. Typical precipitating factors include antipsychotic agents and major tranquilizers. In parkinson disease, drug withdrawal, menstruation, and hyponatremia are precipitating factors. We report a case of neuroleptic malignant syndrome in a patient with parkinson disease and hypernatremia. In addition, we hypothesized that sudden change of sodium concentrations in the central nervous system could trigger neuroleptic malignant syndrome in patients with parkinson disease. According to our experience, neuroleptic malignant syndrome is a clinical diagnosis and prompt diagnosis avoids unnecessary, expensive work-ups. ( info)
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