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1/185. An "enigmatic" cause of back pain following regional anaesthesia for caesarean section: septic pelvic thrombophlebitis.

    A case of septic pelvic thrombophlebitis is reported. This presented as back pain and leg weakness 18 days after regional anaesthesia for caesarean section. The patient was referred to the Department of Anaesthesia. Obstetric review of the patient at the request of the anaesthetist led to a CT scan that demonstrated the diagnosis. This condition may lead to fatal "on-table" pulmonary embolus if the thrombosed vein is handled during an exploratory laparotomy. Treatment should be conservative with antibiotics and anticoagulation. This case illustrates the need for awareness amongst anaesthetists of possible surgical causes for morbidity that may initially appear anaesthetic-related. ( info)

2/185. Sonographically guided intralesional antibiotic injection for treatment of a recalcitrant pelvic abscess: a case report.

    A pelvic abscess occurred in an infertile woman with an endocervical gonococcal infection after hysterosalpingographical examination. The pelvic abscess was not cured despite rigorous antimicrobial chemotherapy until two intra-abscess ceftriaxone injections were administered. This shows that antibiotics administered systemically may not reach therapeutic concentration in an abscess and an intra-abscess antibiotic injection may help to cure it. ( info)

3/185. Pelvic actinomycosis.

    Pelvic actinomycosis is a rare chronic infection caused by bacteria of the family actinomycetaceae. Prolonged use of an intrauterine contraceptive device (IUD) is a well known risk factor. We report six patients with pelvic actinomycosis, all of whom had an IUD inserted for over six years. Diagnostic problems necessitated a laparotomy in all patients. The pathohistological diagnosis was based on the characteristic microscopic image and specific staining. The patients were treated with penicillin and amoxycillin for several months. ( info)

4/185. The forgotten copper 7 - a circus tale.

    A forgotten Gravigard intra-uterine contraceptive device, in a woman with an itinerant lifestyle, caused pelvic actinomycosis, mimicking ovarian malignancy. This case illustrates that although rare, this complication can still occur. ( info)

5/185. Pelvic actinomycosis. Is long-term antibiotic therapy necessary?

    OBJECTIVE: To describe 11 cases of actinomycosis and analyze whether long-term antibiotic use in necessary. STUDY DESIGN: Analysis of 11 cases of pelvic actinomycosis diagnosed and treated during the last nine years. Four patients had an intrauterine device (IUD) for 6-20 years, three patients had an IUD for 3-5 years, and four patients had no known etiology. In most patients the symptoms lasted from several days to one month. The actinomycotic lesions involved one or both ovaries in all 11 cases. In five patients the lesion extended to other areas, such as the uterus, omentum, parametrium, pelvic walls, colon, bladder, cul-de-sac and gallbladder. RESULTS: All patients underwent surgery that included removal of the lesions with the ipsilateral or both adnexa and, in specific cases, with extension of the lesions, hysterectomy, omentectomy, hemicolectomy and cholecystectomy. Confirmation of the diagnosis of actinomycosis was done by histology in all cases, and antibiotic treatment usually began 1-14 days after surgery. The drug of choice was penicillin. The duration of treatment was 12 months in 6 patients, 6 months in 3 and < or = 3 months in two. All patients were alive and well after two to nine years of follow-up. CONCLUSION: In contrast to actinomycosis at other sites, where the literature recommends antibiotic therapy for 6-12 months, pelvic actinomycosis could be a limited disease. We propose that in cases of pelvic actinomycosis where the abscess can be completely removed surgically, a shorter period of antibiotic therapy can be effective. ( info)

6/185. Large bowel obstruction due to intrauterine device: associated pelvic inflammatory disease.

    Pelvic actinomycosis associated with the use of intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUDs) can mimic pelvic malignancy. Recognizing this rare, but not uncommon complication of IUD use can spare a patient from an extensive surgical procedure. If recognized preoperatively, a simple regimen of antibiotics can be curative; however, if symptomatic, a limited surgical procedure is warranted. We present the case of a 55-year-old woman with a slow, indolent course of partial large bowel obstruction and a history of IUD use for over 20 years. A preoperative CT scan revealed a frozen pelvis mimicking a pelvic malignancy. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a firm, indurated, fibrotic reaction in the pelvis involving the uterus, adnexa, and sigmoid colon. A diverting loop colostomy was performed, and pathology revealed sulfur granules from the extracted IUD that grew actinomyces. The patient was treated with the appropriate antibiotics, and during the takedown of the colostomy 6 months later the pelvic inflammation was completely resolved. An extensive review of the literature involving actinomycotic abscesses associated with IUD use reveals a limited number of studies reported in the general surgical literature. It behooves the general surgeon to be aware of this unusual case so that the appropriate consultation and treatment can be performed with limited morbidity to the patient. ( info)

7/185. Primary non Hodgkin's lymphoma of the vagina.

    The genital tract as a primary site of malignant lymphoma in women is extremely rare. This report concerns a 64 year old patient with a primary vaginal non-Hodgkin lymphoma (large cell B lineage according to the REAL classification--centroblastic type according to the Kiel classification--"G" according Working Formulation) with an unusual clinical presentation--pelvic discomfort accompanied by frequent ureteral-like colic. Due to gynecological onset symptoms and the rarity of this extranodal primary site misinterpretation of a primary vaginal lymphoma as a benign inflammatory disease or endometriosis may occur. We emphasize the importance of their recognition and also the differential diagnosis of cervical lymphoma from other neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions. ( info)

8/185. Pelvic actinomycosis presenting as malignant large bowel obstruction: a case report and a review of the literature.

    actinomycosis is an infrequent chronic infectious disease. In most cases the diagnosis is made postoperatively because of its unusual clinical presentation. Moreover, abdominal actinomycosis may mimic cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, or diverticulitis. Delay in diagnosis leading to inadequate management and unnecessary procedures has been reported. We report the case of a 49-year-old woman with large bowel obstruction secondary to extensive pelvic actinomycosis involving the rectosigmoid and cecum. She required emergency surgery, which involved both resection and colostomy. A review of the literature on abdominal actinomycosis during the last 50 years is also reported. Rarely has emergency surgery been described in this condition. Although the incidence of actinomycosis has decreased, the abdominal-pelvic form has been increasing over the past 10 years secondary to increased prolonged use of the intrauterine device. As the clinical spectrum of actinomycosis has dramatically changed, so have the therapeutic considerations. Aggressive surgical management in advanced cases with multiorganic involvement seems to have reemerged in recent years. Consideration of actinomycosis in a woman with prolonged use of an intrauterine device and symptoms of bowel obstruction could help to improve the preoperative diagnosis and management of this rare disease. ( info)

9/185. magnetic resonance imaging of actinomycosis presenting as pelvic malignancy.

    Pelvic actinomycosis is associated with long-standing use of an intrauterine contraceptive device and may present with clinical signs and symptoms of pelvic malignancy. diagnostic imaging can confirm the presence of a pelvic mass and tissue infiltration but findings are often non-specific. We present a case of pelvic actinomycosis with tubo-ovarian abscess in which magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated lower signal intensity tissue on T2 weighted sequences than would be typical for pelvic malignancy or infection and was useful in confirming regression of pelvic disease in response to antibiotic therapy. ( info)

10/185. Successful pregnancy outcome following first trimester pelvic inflammatory disease.

    pelvic inflammatory disease rarely complicates pregnancy. Although few in number, most of the previously reported cases have resulted in spontaneous abortion or intrauterine fetal demise. At 5 weeks gestation, a 20 year old gravida 2 para 1 underwent uterine curettage and diagnostic laparoscopy for a suspected ectopic gestation. Seventeen days later, she presented with severe bilateral lower abdominal pain, cervical motion tenderness, uterine tenderness, and bilateral adnexal tenderness. After 84 hours of intravenous cefazolin, gentamycin, and clindamycin, the patient had resolution of all symptoms. She then completed 14 days of outpatient antibiotic therapy with oral cephalexin. At 39 weeks gestation, she delivered a 3611 g male fetus via spontaneous vaginal delivery. Successful pregnancy outcome can occur after first trimester pelvic inflammatory disease. ( info)
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