Cases reported "pericardial effusion"

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1/1030. Pericardial heart disease: a study of its causes, consequences, and morphologic features.

    This report reviews morphologic aspects of pericardial heart disease. A morphologic classification for this condition is presented. An ideal classification of pericardial heart disease obviously would take into account clinical, etiologic and morphologic features of this condition but a single classification combining these three components is lacking. Pericardial heart disease is relatively uncommon clinically, and when present at necropsy it usually had not been recognized during life. The term "pericarditis" is inaccurate because most pericardial diseases are noninflammatory in nature. Morphologically chronic pericardial heart disease may present clinically as an acute illness. Even when clinical symptoms are present, however, few patients develop evidence of cardiac dysfunction (constriction). When pericardial constriction occurs, it is the result of increased pericardial fluid or increased pericardial tissue or both. Increased fluid is treated by drainage; increased tissue is treated by excision. In most patients with chronic constrictive pericarditis the etiology is not apparent even after histologic examination of pericardia. ( info)

2/1030. Haemopericardium as a late complication in anticoagulant therapy following mitral valve replacement.

    Two patients, who suffered from pericardial tamponade in the course of prophylactic anticoagulant treatment, are reported. The mitral valve had been replaced by a prosthesis in both cases. The diagnosis was suspected clinically and radiologically and proven by pericardiocentesis. One of the patients was treated by a percutaneously inserted small polyethylene tube for continous drainage and the other by thoracotomy and partial pericardiectomy. Both patients recovered and are at present asymptomatic. Th mechanism of bleeding patients receiving anticoagulant therapy is briefly discussed. ( info)

3/1030. Left ventricular apical diastolic collapse: an unusual echocardiographic marker of postoperative cardiac tamponade.

    A 37-year-old woman was evaluated for signs and symptoms of cardiac tamponade 11 days after mitral valve replacement and tricuspid valve repair. The transthoracic echocardiogram showed a large, compartmentalized pericardial effusion that resulted in left ventricular apical diastolic collapse. Also noted were right ventricular posterior wall diastolic collapse and hemodynamic findings consistent with cardiac tamponade. This case highlights the atypical echocardiographic findings in patients with pericardial effusions after cardiac surgery. ( info)

4/1030. Lethal congenital dyserythropoietic anaemia type I in siblings presenting as pericardial effusions in the second trimester.

    Congenital dyserythropoietic anaemias (CDA) are rare inherited disorders of erythropoiesis characterised by abnormal red cell morphology and haemolysis. The diagnosis of CDA should be considered in the fetus or patient presenting with a normocytic or macrocytic anaemia especially if red cell morphology is abnormal. Three types and other possible variants have been described. There are few reports of clinical presentation of CDA in utero. We present 2 cases of lethal CDA in siblings that presented with pericardial effusions in the second trimester. ( info)

5/1030. cardiac tamponade and death from intrapericardial rupture [corrected] of sinus of valsalva aneurysm.

    A 35-year-old woman presented with dyspnea and chest pain. She had a large aneurysm of the non-coronary sinus of valsalva. Before her scheduled urgent surgery, the patient collapsed and died of cardiac tamponade secondary to intrapericardial rupture of the aneurysm. We would advocate urgent repair of this type of lesion to prevent such an outcome. We are aware of no other specific reports addressing extracardiac rupture of non-coronary cusp aneurysms [corrected]. ( info)

6/1030. Isolated primary chylopericardium.

    A 16-year-old man was found to have an enlarged cardiac silhouette. Primary chylopericardium was diagnosed when pericardiocentesis yielded the characteristic milky-white fluid. The thoracic duct was easily identified by giving milk and butter and an injection of ethylene blue immediately before the operation. Intraoperative thoracic ductography showed no abnormal findings. Mass ligation of the thoracic duct above the diaphragm and partial pericardiectomy were successfully performed through a right thoracotomy approach. In addition, many of the lymphatics were ligated above the diaphragm. The right thoracotomy approach was a useful method for resection and ligation of the thoracic duct just above the diaphragm. Follow-up showed no accumulation of pericardial fluid or pleural effusion. ( info)

7/1030. Intrapericardial benign teratoma with unusual presentation.

    Benign teratoma, also referred as dermoid cyst, do occur in the mediastinum. However, their intrapericardial location has been reported very occasionally. This case of intrapericardial benign solid teratoma is being presented because of its rarity and its unusual presentation as a case of empyema, with features of cardiac compression and pericardial effusion. ( info)

8/1030. hypothyroidism presenting as acute cardiac tamponade with viral pericarditis.

    This report describes the case of a young woman who presented to an emergency department with severe abdominal pain and shock. The patient was found to have pericardial tamponade due to a massive pericardial effusion. On further evaluation, the etiology of this effusion was considered to be secondary to hypothyroidism with concominant acute viral pericarditis leading to a fulminant tamponade. The presentation, differential diagnosis, and management of pericardial effusion and tamponade secondary to hypothyroidism and viral pericarditis are discussed. The diagnosis of hypothyroidism in conjunction with acute viral pericarditis should be considered in patients presenting with unexplained pericardial effusion and tamponade. ( info)

9/1030. A case of diffuse endomyocardial fibrosis of the right ventricle with persistent pericardial effusion.

    A case of 42-year-old female with persistent pericardial effusion and recurrent congestive heart failure was presented. The clinical course, laboratory and cardiac evaluations confirmed the existence of tricuspid incompetence and restrictive condition of the right ventricle. At autopsy, the right atrium and ventricle showed moderate hypertrophy, the left ventricle being almost completely spared macroscopically. Diffuse fibrous thickening of the right atrial and ventricular endomyocardium with mural thrombi, and mild lymphocytic infiltation were noted microscopically. These findings are compatible with endomyocardial fibrosis described by Davies. The etiology and pathogenesis of the disease were discussed. ( info)

10/1030. Hemopericardium, anticoagulation, and an endocardial pacemaker. A case report with description of new auscultatory and radiographic signs.

    A case of organizing hemopericardium and cardiac tamponade in a patient with a permanent endocardial pacemaker who was maintained on anticoagulation is presented. The hemopericardium is concluded as solely due to the anticoagulation. A new auscultatory finding attributable to an endocardial pacemaker and a helpful radiographic sign of pericardial effusion in patients with these pacemakers is described. ( info)
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