Cases reported "Pneumocephalus"

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1/286. Intracerebral pneumatocele: an unusual complication following intraventricular drainage in case of benign intracranial hypertension.

    The development of an intracerebral pneumatocele following ventricular catheterization for benign intracranial hypertension is described. The importance of skull radiography in the diagnosis of this previously unreported complication ist emphasized. This case demonstrates that air can accumulate without the need to implicate increased pharyngeal pressure, and despite raised intracranial pressure. ( info)

2/286. pneumocephalus associated with ethmoidal sinus osteoma--case report.

    A 35-year-old female suffered sudden onset of severe headache upon blowing her nose. No rhinorrhea or signs of meningeal irritation were noted. Computed tomography (CT) with bone windows clearly delineated a bony mass in the right ethmoid sinus, extending into the orbit and intracranially. Conventional CT demonstrated multiple air bubbles in the cisterns and around the mass in the right frontal skull base, suggesting that the mass was associated with entry of the air bubbles into the cranial cavity. T1- and T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging showed a low-signal lesion that appeared to be an osteoma but did not show any air bubbles. Through a wide bilateral frontal craniotomy, the cauliflower-like osteoma was found to be protruding intracranially through the skull base and the overlying dura mater. The osteoma was removed, and the dural defect was covered with a fascia graft. Histological examination confirmed that the lesion was an osteoma. The operative procedure resolved the problem of air entry. CT is superior to MR imaging for diagnosing pneumocephalus, by providing a better assessment of bony destruction and better detection of small amounts of intracranial air. ( info)

3/286. An unusual case of otogenic pneumocephalus.

    Otogenic pneumocephalus is a rare entity usually caused by temporal bone trauma. This paper describes a case of otogenic pneumocephalus of traumatic origin, in which the type of the fracture (a bony spicula was detached from the mastoid) and the location (Trautmann's triangle) were uncommon. ( info)

4/286. temporal bone fracture following blunt trauma caused by a flying fish.

    Blunt trauma to the temporal region can cause fracture of the skull base, loss of hearing, vestibular symptoms and otorrhoea. The most common causes of blunt trauma to the ear and surrounding area are motor vehicle accidents, violent encounters, and sports-related accidents. We present an obscure case of a man who was struck in the ear by a flying fish while wading in the sea with resulting temporal bone fracture, sudden deafness, vertigo, cerebrospinal fluid otorrhoea, and pneumocephalus. ( info)

5/286. Atraumatic pneumocephalus: a case report and review of the literature.

    pneumocephalus or air within the cranial vault is usually associated with disruption of the skull caused by head trauma, neoplasms, or after craniofacial surgical interventions. We report a child who presented with headache and the pathognomonic "succussion splash" and was found to have atraumatic pneumocephalus from forceful valsalva maneuvers. pneumocephalus forms, caused by either a ball-valve mechanism that allows air to enter but not exit the cranial vault, or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks, which create a negative pressure with subsequent air entry. We review the literature for traumatic and atraumatic causes of pneumocephalus, its complications, and therapy. ( info)

6/286. pneumocephalus complicating general anaesthesia in a nine-year-old child.

    We report a case of delayed pneumocephalus that occurred during the course of general anaesthesia for a CT head scan. This occurrence in a child has not been previously reported. The pathophysiology of pneumocephalus is reviewed. ( info)

7/286. pneumocephalus following inadvertent intrathecal puncture during epidural anesthesia: a case report and review of the literature.

    Regional anesthesia techniques (epidural and spinal) are preferred anesthetic modalities in modern obstetrics, in that both of these modalities enable maternal participation in the delivery process and assist in avoiding maternal aspiration associated with general anesthesia. We report an unusual and potentially severe complication of epidural anesthesia for elective repeat cesarean delivery. Following intravenous hydration and lateral uterine displacement, uneventful epidural anesthesia was administered. Toward the end of the otherwise uneventful cesarean the patient, who had been completely stable, became unresponsive, with dilated pupils that did not respond to light. The patient was immediately intubated and gradually regained consciousness and was extubated within 1 h. Cranial computed tomography disclosed pneumocephalus. Inadvertent pneumocephalus is reviewed. ( info)

8/286. CSF orbitorrhoea with tension pneumocephalus.

    A seventy eight year old man sustained penetrating injury to right orbit about 15 years ago. Later he developed right orbital infection leading to phthisis bulbi. Two months before admission he developed CSF leak from the right orbit, tension pneumocephalous and meningitis. A rare case of CSF orbitorrhoea is reported here along with the discussion on mechanisms and management. ( info)

9/286. frontal sinus pneumocele. A case report.

    A pneumocele refers to an aerated sinus with either focal or generalized thinning of the bony sinus wall. Although the pathogenesis of a pneumocele is not yet known, it is presumed that increased intrasinusal pressure, due to a one-way valve between the nasal cavity and the affected sinus, is responsible for this condition. A 37-year-old man with frontal bossing, who underwent surgery for cosmetic reasons, is presented. ( info)

10/286. The perils of a sneeze.

    A 51-year-old woman had a 3-day history of severe left supraorbital pain associated with blurred vision of the left eye. Examination revealed visual acuity of 20/20 OD and 20/100 OS. A left relative afferent pupillary defect was present. neuroimaging revealed a large intra-, supra-, and parasellar mass that had eroded through the sphenoid sinus into the maxillary sinus. Secondary pneumocephalus was present. Pathologic examination of the tissue revealed a pituitary adenoma of the null cell type. To the best of our knowledge, there is only one other case in the literature in which a spontaneous pneumatocele represents the initial manifestation of a pituitary adenoma. ( info)
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