Cases reported "Pneumopericardium"

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11/142. Concurrent pneumopericardium and pneumothorax complicating lung cancer: a case report.

    The coexistence of pneumothorax and pneumopericardium in patients with primary lung cancer is a very rare phenomenon. We report one such case, in which squamous cell carcinoma of the lung was complicated by pneumopericardium and pneumothorax. Several explanations of the mechanisms involved will be discussed. ( info)

12/142. A case of spontaneous pneumomediastinum and pneumopericardium in a young adult.

    Spontaneous medialstinal emphysema (pneumomediastinum) and pneumopericardium may be defined as the presence of free air or gas in the mediastinal structures and in the pericardial sac without an apparent precipitating cause. It most frequently occurs in young healthy adults without serious underlying pulmonary disease. Although pneumomediastinum and pneumopericardium is often asymptomatic, it may cause pain in the neck and chest, dysphonia and shortness of breath. Treatment is supportive unless the patient has a history of trauma from foreign body aspiration. The course of spontaneous pneumomediastinum and pneumopericardium is usually benign and self-limited. A case of spontaneous pneumomediastinum, pneumopericardium and subcutaneous emphysema in a 20-year-old male is reported in this paper. ( info)

13/142. Pneumomediastinum and pneumopericardium due to intracavitary aspergilloma: an unusual complication of fungal pneumonia.

    We describe a 14-year-old boy with acute lymphatic leukaemia who developed pneumomediastinum and pneumopericardium as a complication of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. ( info)

14/142. Pneumopericardial tamponade after coronary artery bypass operation.

    A case of relatively uncommon post-operative cardiac tamponade caused by air is described. ( info)

15/142. Electrolytic phenomena and massive gas generation around pacemaker electrodes. Clinical presentation of an unusual pacing failure.

    An unexpected clinical presentation of an unusual pacing failure has been observed in two patients who had had recent implantation of a pacemaker model whose electrodes were made of an nonnoble metal alloy. An intermittent current leakage from the output capacitor and possibly from the output transistor accounted for electrolytic corrosion at the anode, premature depletion of the battery, heart muscle damage and for massive gas generation around electrodes, leading to right ventricular perforation, pneumopericardium and subcutaneous thoracic emphysema. The occurrence of this syndrome shows that, if nonnoble metals are used for electrodes, more attention should be addressed to those conditions which add to polarization problems, as is current leakage from the output circuit components. ( info)

16/142. pneumopericardium in a patient with AIDS.

    In 1997, a 53-year-old male smoker was admitted for progressive shortness of breath associated with a productive cough and yellowish sputum, pleuritic chest pain, and low-grade fever. There was no history of trauma. A posterior-anterior chest radiograph showed a diffuse infiltrate through the right lung field and an air space parallel to the lateral border of the heart. A computed tomographic scan of the chest confirmed pneumopericardium, with no associated pericardial effusion. It also showed a cavitary infiltrate in the anterior basal segment of the right lower lobe, but no definite neoplasm. Cultures of the sputum grew staphylococcus aureus. The patient had positive antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis a, and hepatitis b. A bronchial biopsy from the right lower lobe showed well differentiated infiltrating squamous cell carcinoma with an acute inflammatory exudate. No bronchopericardial fistula was noted. After antibiotic treatment, a repeat chest radiograph showed resolution of pneumopericardium and improvement of the chest infiltrate. Repeat computed tomography of the chest showed that the pneumopericardium had resolved, but now revealed a large pericardial effusion. No bronchopericardial fistula could be demonstrated. Unfortunately, our patient refused further investigation. pneumopericardium is a rare disorder. In adults, pneumopericardium most commonly results from trauma. Although many other reports link pneumopericardium to an underlying disease process, our patient with hiv antibodies developed pneumopericardium despite having no history of trauma and no documentation of a communicating fistula. To our knowledge, there has been no previous report of pneumopericardium in association with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. ( info)

17/142. pneumorrhachis, subcutaneous emphysema, pneumomediastinum, pneumopericardium, and pneumoretroperitoneum after proctocolectomy for ulcerative colitis: report of a case.

    This article presents the first known case of pneumorrhachis (spinal air), pneumomediastinum, pneumopericardium, pneumoretroperitoneum, and subcutaneous emphysema after proctocolectomy for ulcerative colitis. We review the patient's medical history, clinical and laboratory findings, radiographic data, and operative records, as well as the relevant literature. We describe the case of a young male with ulcerative colitis who developed pneumorrhachis, subcutaneous emphysema, pneumoretroperitoneum, pneumomediastinum, and pneumopericardium after a proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. Unlike the case we report, previously described episodes of pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema in patients with ulcerative colitis developed before operative intervention. We offer possible explanations for these unusual complications based on analysis of this case and thorough review of the literature. ( info)

18/142. Pyopneumopericardium caused by mediastinal granuloma.

    We report the case of a previously healthy 32-year-old man who was seen with flulike symptoms, dyspnea, and chest pain. The diagnosis was pyopneumopericardium, and pericardial tap revealed 1.3 L of purulent material. Computed tomography of the chest demonstrated a calcified mass inferior to the carina. Urgent exploration through a right thoracotomy revealed that the mass was adherent to the esophagus and pericardium. The subcarinal mass was resected. Pathological study demonstrated granulomatous lymph nodes, which were likely due to histoplasmosis. This is among the first reports of granulomatous erosion into the pericardium causing pyopneumopericardium. The patient made a good recovery, and his case demonstrates the importance of early imaging and mediastinal exploration for pyopneumopericardium. ( info)

19/142. Continuous left hemidiaphragm sign revisited: a case of spontaneous pneumopericardium and literature review.

    In pneumopericardium, a rare but potentially life threatening differential diagnosis of chest pain with a broad variety of causes, rapid diagnosis and adequate treatment are crucial. In upright posteroanterior chest radiography, the apical limit of a radiolucent rim, outlining both the left ventricle and the right atrium, lies at the level of the pulmonary artery and ascending aorta, reflecting the anatomical limits of the pericardium. The band of gas surrounding the heart may outline the normally invisible parts of the diaphragm, producing the continuous left hemidiaphragm sign in an upright lateral chest radiograph. If haemodynamic conditions are stable, the underlying condition should be treated and the patient should be monitored closely. Acute haemodynamic deterioration should prompt rapid further investigation and cardiac tamponade must be actively ruled out. Spontaneous pneumopericardium in a 20 year old man is presented, and its pathophysiology described. ( info)

20/142. pneumopericardium associated with bronchogenic carcinoma.

    A case of pneumopericardium associated with primary bronchogenic carcinoma is reported. This association between bronchogenic carcinoma and pneumopericardium has not been reported. The roentgenographic features of pneumopericardium are discussed. ( info)
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