Cases reported "pneumoperitoneum"

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1/276. Tension pneumoperitoneum: a report of 4 cases.

    Four cases of tension pneumoperitoneum are described. In 3 patients this condition followed a perforation of a grossly distended caecum. In 2 of these patients there was an associated malignant neoplasm of the pelvic colon with obstruction. The third patient had a pseudo-obstruction of the transverse colon. The fourth patient had a tension penumoperitoneum with associated surgical emphysema in the neck and subcutaneous tissues of the abdomen and chest walls, following perforation of a duodenal ulcer. The aetiology, presentation and management, together with the mechanism of tension pneumoperitoneum, are discussed. ( info)

2/276. pneumoperitoneum from an eroded T-fastener.

    We present a case of late gastric perforation caused by retained T-fasteners after removal of a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube. We emphasize that timely removal of these fasteners is important in preventing this complication. ( info)

3/276. pneumoperitoneum caused by a perforated peptic ulcer in a peritoneal dialysis patient: difficulty in diagnosis.

    peritonitis due to viscus perforation in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients can be catastrophic. We describe the first reported case of perforated peptic ulcer (PPU) in a PD patient. This 78-year-old man presented with a 1-day history of mild abdominal pain. He had been receiving nocturnal intermittent PD for 2 years and had ischemic heart disease and cirrhosis of the liver. pneumoperitoneum and peritonitis were documented, but the symptoms were mild. The "board-like abdomen" sign was not noted. air inflation and contrast radiography indicated a perforation in the upper gastrointestinal tract, and laparotomy disclosed a perforation in the prepyloric great curvature. Unfortunately, the patient died during surgery. This case illustrates that the "board-like abdomen" sign may be absent in PD patients with PPU because of dilution of gastric acid by the dialysate. Free air in the abdomen, although suggestive of PPU, is also not uncommon in PD patients without viscus perforation. Because PD has to be discontinued after laparotomy and exploratory laparotomy may be fatal in high-risk patients, other diagnostic methods should be used to confirm viscus perforation before surgery. PPU, which can be proved by air inflation and contrast radiography, should be suspected in PD patients with pneumoperitoneum and peritonitis. ( info)

4/276. transillumination for the diagnosis of pneumoperitoneum.

    transillumination of the abdomen with a cold fibreoptic light source was used for the rapid diagnosis of pneumoperitoneum in a sick premature infant with necrotising enterocolitis. The diagnosis was confirmed at laparotomy. The neonate survived the surgical procedure of resection and anastomosis of the perforated gut. Although additional diagnostic investigations such as x-rays and paracentesis of the abdomen were also positive in this case, transillumination of the abdomen proved to be a useful tool for early diagnosis. transillumination thus is a valuable modality for early diagnosis of pneumoperitoneum, especially where facilities for in-house x-rays are not available. ( info)

5/276. Colonoscopic perforation: its emergency treatment.

    One of the accepted complications of colonoscopy is perforation. This is known to occur in greater frequency in patients having undergone previous pelvic or colonic surgery, as well as patients suffering from diverticulosis. A case is presented of colonic perforation during diagnostic examination in an area of adhesions secondary to pelvic surgery. Immediately after the perforation, the patient entered into vascular collapse and respiratory distress, with a distended abdomen. The introduction of a large bore intravenous catheter into the abdominal cavity with the release of the pneumoperitoneum resulted in an instantaneous return of vital signs and the patient subsequently underwent surgery and recovered. It is felt that this method of emergency treatment can be life-saving in a patient perforating during colonoscopy. ( info)

6/276. Percutaneous drainage of emphysematous cholecystitis associated with pneumoperitoneum.

    emphysematous cholecystitis, a relatively rare variant of acute cholecystitis, is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. In the presence of a concomitant pneumoperitoneum, these rates may be considered even higher, approaching those of perforation of the gallbladder. The first choice of treatment in cases presenting with pneumoperitoneum is emergency laparotomy. We performed a staged procedure as a second best alternative. In a 65 year-old female patient, initial percutaneous cholecystostomy with a strict intravenous antibiotics regimen, and subsequent cholecystectomy 6 months, later was carried out with successful outcome. A review of the literature revealed 13 other cases of this combination. Treatment modalities and outcome of these patients are discussed. ( info)

7/276. Tension pneumoperitoneum caused by blunt trauma.

    Tension pneumoperitoneum (TPP), the accumulation of free intraabdominal air under pressure, is a rare event. TPP usually occurs from bowel surgery or bowel perforations. Less commonly, TPP occurs in the presence of pneumothoraces or during positive pressure ventilation. Trauma has rarely been a reported cause of TPP. The cases of 2 patients with TPP after blunt trauma are reported. The pathophysiology and management of TPP are discussed. ( info)

8/276. Pneumatosis [correction of pneumocystis] cystoides intestinalis with pneumoperitoneum and pneumoretroperitoneum in a patient with extensive chronic graft-versus-host disease.

    pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis is a rare finding of intramural gasfilled cysts in the bowel wall and sometimes free air in the abdomen. A few conditions are reported to cause this disease, one of them being immunosuppression. We describe a 50-year-old Caucasian male with extensive chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) of the gut and skin who developed PCI with pneumoperitoneum and pneumoretroperitoneum. To our knowledge, this is the first report of PCI occurring in a patient with active chronic GVHD which resolved spontaneously. ( info)

9/276. Generalized peritonitis with pneumoperitoneum caused by the spontaneous perforation of pyometra without malignancy: report of a case.

    Spontaneous perforation is a very rare complication of pyometra. We report herein the case of an 88-year-old woman who presented with muscular rigidity and free air on abdominal X-ray films. Perforation of the gastrointestinal tract was diagnosed preoperatively, and an emergency laparotomy was performed. A total hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy was carried out under the diagnosis of generalized peritonitis caused by the spontaneous perforation of pyometra. The culture of purulent fluid from the abdominal cavity showed only escherichia coli, with no anaerobic bacteria. Histological examination revealed pyometra with necrosis of the endometrium and no evidence of malignancy. The patient was discharged on postoperative day 68 without any major complications. pyometra is an unusual cause of peritonitis, but it must be considered as a possible diagnosis in elderly women presenting with an acute abdomen. Following this case report, we discuss the problems associated with establishing a correct preoperative diagnosis of generalized peritonitis caused by the spontaneous perforation of pyometra. ( info)

10/276. Tension pneumoperitoneum associated with a pleural-peritoneal shunt.

    The differential diagnosis of pneumoperitoneum is broad. We report a case of tension pneumoperitoneum in a patient on mechanical ventilation with initially unrecognized pneumothorax who had an indwelling pleural-peritoneal shunt. The patient developed ventilatory and hemodynamic collapse as air was diverted from the pleural space into the peritoneal cavity. Subsequent abdominal exploration revealed the source of the intra-abdominal air. Placement of a chest thoracostomy tube and removal of the pleural-peritoneal catheter resulted in significant clinical improvement. We suggest that it is important to recognize that pleural-peritoneal catheters may cause tension pneumoperitoneum without obvious concurrent pneumothorax. ( info)
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