Cases reported "Pneumothorax"

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1/1119. Tension pneumothorax complicating diagnostic upper endoscopy: a case report.

    Hypoxemia is common during various endoscopic procedures and may result from a variety of causes. These causes range from benign and otherwise easily reversible events like oversedation to potentially life threatening complications such as pneumothorax. Although pneumothorax has been reported secondary to gastrointestinal perforation as a complication of various therapeutic endoscopic procedures, there has been no report of pneumothorax without perforation. We report a case of a patient who developed severe hypoxemia and hemodynamic instability during diagnostic upper endoscopy as a result of pneumomediastinum and tension pneumothorax in the absence of any signs of gastrointestinal perforation and comment on various possible mechanisms. Immediate endotracheal intubation and bilateral chest tube placement resulted in prompt return of the patient's oxygenation and vital signs back to normal. This report enlarges the list of possible causes of hypoxemia during endoscopy and shows the importance of early and prompt recognition, which allowed directed therapy with a good outcome. ( info)

2/1119. pneumothorax due to electrical burn.

    A 25-year-old male developed early as well as delayed (15 days post burn) pneumothorax of right side following high voltage, 1100 KV, electrical burn of the right side of the chest wall. diagnosis was established by clinical examination and chest x-ray. Intercostal tube drainage with underwater seal relieved the patient of pneumothorax. ( info)

3/1119. subcutaneous emphysema with spontaneous pneumomediastinum and pneumothorax in adult dermatomyositis.

    We describe a 32-year-old patient with adult dermatomyositis who developed dyspnea and worsening of pre-existing infarcted skin lesions of the fingers. Chest radiographs showed diffuse hazy reticulonodular infiltration in both lungs, subcutaneous emphysema, pneumomediastinum, and pneumothorax. The pulmonary symptoms and cutaneous lesions gradually improved with a high dose of prednisolone. Although subcutaneous emphysema and pneumomediastinum occur frequently in association with traumatic disruption of cutaneous and mucosal barriers and assisted ventilation, it has rarely been observed in patients with interstitial pneumonitis in connective tissue diseases. Although dermatomyositis and subcutaneous emphysema are all relatively well-known diseases to dermatologists, the occurrence of spontaneous pneumomediastinum and pneumothorax and subsequent subcutaneous emphysema in connective tissue diseases such as dermatomyositis is unfamiliar. We discuss the possible mechanisms of this condition. ( info)

4/1119. Fragile lung in the marfan syndrome.

    Two cases of the marfan syndrome presented with spontaneous pneumothorax. Both had chest radiographs showing bilateral bullae in the upper lung zones and pulmonary function tests consistent with mild emphysema. There were dereases in forced expiratory flow rates at low lung volumes, carbon monoxide transfer factor, and lung elastic recoil. It is suggested that pneumothorax and bullous emphysema in this syndrome are caused by a weakness in the pulmonary connective tissue framework. ( info)

5/1119. Fracture of the first rib.

    Fifteen cases of isolated fracture of the first rib are submitted. The mechanism of the fracture is discussed. It proved compatible with the descriptions in the literature, caused either by direct trauma to the shoulder, a sudden violent contraction of juxtacostal muscles; or else it was a chance finding, without any history of trauma and as such interpreted as a fatigue fracture. A case of Horner's syndrome complicating a fracture of the first rib is also described. ( info)

6/1119. Transient mutism resolving into cerebellar speech after brain stem infarction following a traumatic injury of the vertebral artery in a child.

    A 3.7-year-old girl presented with an anterior neck injury followed by progressive subcutaneous emphysema and loss of consciousness. After resuscitation, a laceration on the first tracheal cartilage was closed surgically. As she was extubated one week later, she was found to have right hemiplegia and muteness. MRI showed a T2-bright lesion on the tegmentum of the left midbrain down to the upper pons. Right vertebral angiography disclosed an intimal flap with stenosis at the C3 vertebral level presumably caused by a fracture of the right C3 transverse process later confirmed in a cervical 3D-CT scan. Her muteness lasted for 10 days, after which she began to utter some comprehensible words in a dysarthric fashion. Her neurological deficits showed improvement within 3 months of her admission. Transient mutism after brain stem infarction has not been reported previously. We discuss the anatomical bases for this unusual reversible disorder in the light of previous observations and conclude that bilateral damage to the dentatothalamocortical fibers at the decussation of the superior cerebellar peduncle may have been responsible for her transient mutism. ( info)

7/1119. pneumothorax during anesthesia with changes in ECG.

    A patient known to suffer from CNSLD was to undergo cervical lymph node dissection for gingival carcinoma. pneumothorax developed immediately after introduction of anesthesia. In addition to the usual physical diagnostic signs, an abrupt decrease in amplitude of the QRS- complex and T -waves was observed in the ECG on the scope, the sensitivity of which remained unchanged. The ECG changes disappeared after abolition of the pneumothorax. ( info)

8/1119. Chest wall arteriovenous fistula: an unusual complication after chest tube placement.

    Posttraumatic arteriovenous fistulas can form between vessels of the thorax that have sustained loss of integrity to the vessel wall. Although most are caused by injuries as a consequence of missile penetration or stab wounds, iatrogenic damage is a potential cause. Herein we present a case of a systemic arteriovenous fistula involving an intercostal artery and subcutaneous vein after chest tube placement. ( info)

9/1119. Bilateral pneumothoraces with multiple bullae in a patient with asymptomatic bronchiolitis obliterans 10 years after bone marrow transplantation.

    A 16-year-old boy developed bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) 10 years after BMT for myelodysplastic syndrome. Although the patient complained of almost no dyspnea on exertion, he had mild hypercapnea with a markedly reduced forced expiratory volume of 0.32 l. Chest x-rays showed occasional bilateral minimal pneumothoraces, which is in accordance with the existence of multiple small bullae found on the pleural surface at video-assisted thoracic surgery. Histologic examination of the biopsied lung revealed BO. This case indicates that BO in adolescence following BMT and possible chronic GVHD may be masked because of lung immaturity at BMT, and BO after BMT may be associated with multiple pleural bullae. ( info)

10/1119. diagnosis and hazards of unexpected diaphragmatic hernias during colonoscopy: report of two cases.

    Two cases of diaphragmatic hernias are reported. Both cases were previously undiagnosed and were found during diagnostic colonoscopy. In one case sudden respiratory distress occurred during the endoscopic procedure owing to a barotraumatic perforation in a left-sided hernia with tension pneumothorax. The diagnoses were made by fluoroscopy without delay. Endoscopists should be aware of the possible occurrence of diaphragmatic hernias and their risk as life-threatening complications. To avoid such dangerous complications access to X-ray facilities with fluoroscopy is recommended in endoscopic units where colonoscopies are performed. ( info)
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