Cases reported "polyradiculoneuropathy"

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1/552. Chronic motor axonal neuropathy: pathological evidence of inflammatory polyradiculoneuropathy.

    Chronic immune and inflammatory motor neuropathies may resemble motor neuron disease, and the distinction may be particularly difficult if conduction block or GM1 antibodies are absent. The pathology of this axonal type of chronic motor neuropathy has not been characterized except in a few cases associated with paraproteinemia. We describe the clinical, electrophysiological, and pathological findings in a patient with a chronic motor axonal neuropathy, normal immunoelectrophoresis, and no GM1 antibodies. At autopsy the spinal cord was normal with the exception of chromatolytic motor neurons. All the ventral roots were greatly thinned. Of 10 mixed nerves and numerous spinal roots sampled, five showed areas of perineurial, perivascular lymphocytic infiltration. There was severe axonal loss in the motor roots that was not as evident in mixed nerves, and the sensory nerves and roots were virtually unaffected. Our findings suggest that a chronic motor axonal neuropathy without paraproteinemia or GM1 antibodies may, in some cases, result from an inflammatory process. ( info)

2/552. AAEM case report 4: guillain-barre syndrome. American association of Electrodiagnostic medicine.

    A 57-year-old woman developed rapidly progressive, symmetric, extremity weakness, facial diplegia, ophthalmoplegia, respiratory insufficiency, and sensory ataxia over a 3-week period. Electrodiagnostic studies were performed on days 6, 13, and 50 following the onset of weakness. Motor nerve conduction abnormalities were the predominant findings. Prolonged motor distal latencies, prolonged or absent F waves, and partial motor conduction blocks were present and form the diagnostic features of an acquired, demyelinating polyneuropathy. Abnormalities in sensory nerve conductions and blink reflexes were also present. guillain-barre syndrome was diagnosed prompting the initiation of therapeutic plasma exchange. The patient's clinical status continued to worsen over the next 10 days before stabilizing. Considerable improvement in extremity strength, ocular motility, and respiratory function occurred in the subsequent weeks. Well-planned and well-executed electrodiagnostic studies generate key adjunctive data to the clinical diagnosis of guillain-barre syndrome. ( info)

3/552. Chronic steadily progressive central and peripheral predominantly motor demyelination, involving the cranial nerves, responsive to immunoglobulins.

    The association of central and peripheral demyelination was reported previously. Most of the cases refer to central chronic relapsing demyelination with clinical criteria for multiple sclerosis associated with later signs of peripheral nerve involvement. Other authors, described central lesions in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy and in guillain-barre syndrome, as a seldom occurrence. We report a patient in which a chronic steadily progressive central and peripheral predominantly motor nervous system demyelination, involving the cranial nerves, was identified. The patient improved after intravenous immunoglobulin suggesting an immune-mediated mechanism. To our knowledge this presentation was not described before. ( info)

4/552. guillain-barre syndrome following malaria.

    Two adult males were admitted with acute are flexic quadriplegia and bifacial and bulbar weakness 2 weeks after an acute episode of malaria, one due to Plasmodium falciparum infection (patient 1) and the other due to plasmodium vivax (patient 2). cerebrospinal fluid analysis and nerve conduction studies confirmed the diagnosis of guillain-barre syndrome (GBS). Patient 1 progressed to develop respiratory paralysis and required mechanical ventilation. He received intravenous immunoglobulins for the GBS and made a complete recovery in 6 weeks. A review of 11 cases of GBS (nine previously reported and the present two) revealed that eight patients had preceding falciparum malaria and three had vivax infection. All but two patients had distal symmetric sensory deficits. Paralysis was mild in seven cases (three due to P. vivax and four due to P. falciparum) and recovered completely in 2-6 weeks without any specific treatment. Four patients with falciparum malaria developed severe paralysis with respiratory failure, and three patients died. One patient who received intravenous immunoglobulins recovered completely (patient 1 in this report). ( info)

5/552. haemophilus influenzae has a GM1 ganglioside-like structure and elicits guillain-barre syndrome.

    The authors report a patient with an axonal guillain-barre syndrome (acute motor axonal neuropathy) associated with anti-GM1 antibody after haemophilus influenzae infection. The result of ELISA inhibition studies and cytochemical staining with cholera toxin suggest the presence of a GM1-like structure on the surface of H. influenzae isolated from the patient. A particular strain of H. influenzae may have a GM1-like structure and may elicit an axonal guillain-barre syndrome. ( info)

6/552. Can immunoadsorption plasmapheresis be used as the first choice therapy for neuroimmunological disorders?

    The subjects were 31 patients in whom immunoadsorption plasmapheresis (IAPP) was performed as the first choice therapy for primary or recurrent neuroimmunological disorders. The clinical manifestations before and after IAPP and the use of corticosteroids were investigated in the present study. IAPP was clinically effective in all patients. The corticosteroids (CSs) administration was begun or CSs were increased after completion of IAPP in 11 patients. IAPP was performed as the first choice therapy, and favorable results were obtained in patients with guillain-barre syndrome and Miller-Fisher syndrome. IAPP alone was also effective in a patient with lupoid sclerosis. When IAPP was used alone in 2 patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy, it completely eliminated the clinical manifestations, but the symptoms recurred about 2 months later. Therefore, although IAPP could be performed as the first choice therapy for many neuroimmunological disorders, subsequent therapies should be carefully investigated. ( info)

7/552. polyradiculopathy in sarcoidosis.

    We present three new and 14 retrospective cases of polyradiculopathy in sarcoidosis. Of these, 71% had weakness and 59% areflexia of the lower extremities, and 35% had sphincter dysfunction. Cases often were associated with central nervous system sarcoidosis. All cases involved thoracolumbar or lumbosacral roots, except a single case of cervical polyradiculopathy. Of 14 treated patients, nine improved with corticosteroids, laminectomy, or both. polyradiculopathy complicating sarcoidosis: (1) is uncommon; (2) primarily involves thoracic and lumbar roots; (3) may arise from contiguous, hematogenous, or gravitational nerve root sleeve seeding; (4) may be asymptomatic; and (5) may improve with corticosteroids. Differential diagnosis of weakness in patients with sarcoidosis should include nerve root involvement from the primary process by direct sarcoid involvement. ( info)

8/552. pain and the guillain-barre syndrome in children under 6 years old.

    During a 15-year period, 29 children, under the age of 6 years, with acute guillain-barre syndrome were seen at our institution. A review of their charts revealed that pain was a symptom in all patients and was present on admission in 79% of cases. pain was often the most important symptom and led to misdiagnosis in 20 patients (69%). In 11 of these children, symptoms were present for more than a week before the correct diagnosis was made. The most common pain syndrome was back and lower limb pain, present in 83% of patients. Pediatricians should consider guillain-barre syndrome in their differential diagnosis when faced with a child who has lower limb pain and areflexia. ( info)

9/552. The guillain-barre syndrome following dengue fever.

    A 44 year old female presented with fever, muscle aches, rash and a low platelet count. IgM antibody to dengue virus was positive. Two weeks later she developed a flaccid areflexic quadriparesis. Nerve conduction studies showed a predominantly demyelitinating sensory motor polyneuropathy consistent with guillain-barre syndrome. Despite the relatively common occurrence of dengue fever, an associated polyradiculoneuropathy is distinctly uncommon. ( info)

10/552. Bilateral ballism in a patient with overlapping Fisher's and Guillain-Barre syndromes.

    A 29 year old woman developed diplopia and ataxic gait. Neurological examination showed total ophthalmoplegia, cerebellar ataxia, and areflexia. Moreover, there was muscle weakness in all four limbs. An overlap of Fisher's and Guillain-Barre syndromes was dignosed. On day 5 she suddenly developed involuntary flinging movements that affected the face and four limbs. Surface EMG showed 1.5-2 Hz rhythmic grouping discharges. The involuntary movements were considered ballism. This is the first report of a patient with guillain-barre syndrome and a related disorder who showed ballism. ( info)
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