Cases reported "polyradiculopathy"

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1/179. cauda equina syndrome complicating pneumococcal meningitis.

    A 14-month-old female with pneumococcal meningitis presented with flaccid paraplegia, saddle anesthesia, and bladder and bowel dysfunction. magnetic resonance imaging of the spine demonstrated intense gadolinium enhancement of the cauda equina, whereas the conus medullaris appeared normal. This finding indicated that lumbosacral polyradiculopathy caused her symptoms. ( info)

2/179. Vasculitic polyradiculopathy in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    A 22 year old woman with recently diagnosed systemic lupus erythematosus presented with subacute progressive areflexic paraparesis, electrophysiologically identified as a pure axonal polyradiculopathy. sural nerve biopsy disclosed necrotising vasculitis. A striking radiological feature was marked enhancement of the cauda equina with gadolinium. ( info)

3/179. Transient lumbosacral polyradiculopathy after prostatectomy: association with spinal stenosis.

    mononeuropathies are common after pelvic surgery. They are usually the result of unnatural positioning during surgery or faulty restraining devices. Polyneuropathy in the postoperative setting is rare. We report two cases of polyradiculopathy after radical prostatectomy using two different patient positions. Both patients complained of paresthesias and weakness in their lower extremities on postoperative day 1. neurologic examination in each case was consistent with a polyradiculopathy. Significant spinal stenosis of the lumbosacral spine was found in both patients by magnetic resonance imaging. We propose that spinal stenosis is a risk factor for this type of neurologic injury. ( info)

4/179. Guillain Barre syndrome during the pre-icteric phase of acute type B viral hepatitis.

    A 54-year-old man presented with the Guillain Barre syndrome (GBS) during the pre-icteric phase of acute type B viral hepatitis. This neurological syndrome has been infrequently described in the clinical course of viral hepatitis but only once previously during the prodromal period. Deposition of circulating immune complexes of the HBsAg have been implicated in the pathogenesis of arthritis, nephritis and polyarteritis associated with type B viral hepatitis. Although the relationship of GBS to type B viral hepatitis is uncertain, a similar immunopathological mechanism may be involved. ( info)

5/179. cauda equina syndrome due to lumbosacral arachnoid cysts in children.

    We describe the clinical, neuroradiological and surgical aspects of two children in whom symptoms attributable to cauda equina compression were caused by spinal arachnoid cysts. The first patient presented with recurrent urinary tract infections due to neurogenic bladder dysfunction, absent deep tendon reflexes and sensory deficit in the lower limbs. The second child presented with unstable gait as a result of weakness and diminished sensation in the lower extremities. Spinal magnetic resonance imaging revealed a lumbosacral arachnoid cyst in both patients. During surgery the cysts were identified and excised. Two years after surgery, the sensory deficits of the first patient have disappeared and patellar and ankle reflexes can be elicited, but there is no improvement in bladder function. Neurological examination of the second patient was normal. We conclude that the diagnosis of cauda equina syndrome should prompt a vigorous search for its aetiology. Lumbosacral arachnoid cysts are a rare cause of cauda equina syndrome in children. ( info)

6/179. Spinal aneurysm of the lateral sacral artery. Case report.

    Spinal aneurysms are rare, and those not associated with either an arteriovenous malformation or coarctation of the aorta are particularly rare. In this report, the authors present a case of spinal aneurysm involving the lateral sacral artery. The aneurysm presented as a cauda equina syndrome 6 years after the patient underwent a renal transplant contralateral to the side of the aneurysm parent vessel. To the authors' knowledge, only one similar case has been previously reported. They conclude that spinal aneurysms should be included in the differential diagnosis of an extramedullary spinal mass lesion. ( info)

7/179. Lumbar herniated disc presenting with cauda equina syndrome. Long-term follow-up of four cases.

    BACKGROUND: cauda equina syndrome is a relatively rare presenting symptom of lumbar herniated discs. Early operative decompression is advocated, but it may not always restore the bladder function. In such cases, knowing the long-term outcome of bladder or sphincter disturbances is quite useful in planning the management of these patients. methods: hospital records of patients operated on for lumbar herniated discs were reviewed. charts and imaging studies of those patients who presented with classic cauda equina syndrome were analyzed. RESULTS: There were 4 patients (2.8%) of 144 consecutive surgical series of lumbar disc herniation, whose presenting symptom was classic cauda equina syndrome. Postoperatively, the patients had been followed at the clinic for a mean period of 6.4 years. Certain characteristic findings were noted on patients' neurological and radiological examinations. Although the recovery process of bladder function was very slow, taking months to years, all four patients achieved almost normal voiding with no major impairment of daily activities. CONCLUSIONS: Even if short-term recovery of bladder function is poor after lumbar disc surgery for cauda equina syndrome, the long-term outcome is not necessarily so. We should follow up on these patients with such measures as intermittent self-catheterization and drug therapy, expecting slow but steady recovery of bladder and sphincter function. ( info)

8/179. Acute cauda equina syndrome after total knee arthroplasty as a result of epidural anesthesia and spinal stenosis.

    An unusual complication of epidural anesthesia performed for routine total knee arthroplasty is presented. Epidural catheter placement or removal resulted in an acute cauda equina syndrome in a patient with asymptomatic high-grade lumbar spinal stenosis at L3-4. The case is presented along with a literature review. ( info)

9/179. Human immunodeficiency virus-associated pure motor lumbosacral polyradiculopathy.

    BACKGROUND: Neuromuscular disease is a common manifestation of human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, but isolated and severe pathology confined to the motor roots or anterior horn cells are not a recognized clinical entity. OBJECTIVE: To describe the novel clinical presentation of human immunodeficiency virus-related polyradiculopathy manifesting as isolated severe motor symptoms confined to the legs. DESIGN: A case series comprising 4 patients identified prospectively during a 6-month period. SETTING: patients were seen in the Department of neurology, Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, south africa. This is an 800-bed teaching hospital, with approximately 5000 patients seen annually in the Department of neurology. patients: patients were identified by their unique presentation with a severe isolated motor neuropathy in the lower limbs. All were Xhosa-speaking African women. RESULT: Early human immunodeficiency virus infection may be associated with pure motor lumbosacral polyradiculopathy. CONCLUSION: It remains unclear whether this clinical syndrome should be regarded as a variant of the guillain-barre syndrome or whether it represents a unique disorder associated with early human immunodeficiency virus infection. ( info)

10/179. hydroxyurea therapy in paraparesis and cauda equina syndrome due to extramedullary haematopoiesis in thalassaemia: improvement of clinical and haematological parameters.

    patients with beta-globin disorders show amelioration of clinical condition by sustained synthesis of fetal haemoglobin in adult life. We report data on a patient with beta(o)-thalassaemia genotype and thalassaemia intermedia clinical phenotype. He received therapy with hydroxyurea (20 mg/kg/d) because of the presence of extramedullary masses causing paraparesis, neurogenic bladder and impotence. During therapy, the patient showed an improved clinical picture and a significant increase in total Hb (from 71.8 to 103.2 g/L) and a gamma/alpha globin synthetic ratio (from 0.39 to 0.68). The myelosuppressive effect of hydroxyurea was revealed by a decrease in CFU-GEMM, BFU-E, and CFU-GM. Therefore hydroxyurea can be effective in the treatment of patients with extramedullary haematopoiesis (EMH) who are not transfusion-dependent and cannot be treated with radiotherapy. ( info)
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