Cases reported "prolactinoma"

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1/281. vitamin e deficiency ataxia associated with adenoma.

    Vitamin E is one of the most important lipid-soluble antioxidant nutrient. Severe vitamin e deficiency (VED) can have a profound effect on the central nervous system. VED causes ataxia and peripheral neuropathy that resembles Friedreich's ataxia. We report here a patient presenting this syndrome, but also a prolactin and FSH adenoma. Both the neurological syndromes and the adenoma regressed after treatment with alpha-tocopherol. Although, the presence of the prolactinoma in this patient may not be related to his vitamin e deficiency, alpha-tocopherol treatment seems to be beneficial and might usefully be tested in patients with hypophyseal secreting other forms of adenoma. ( info)

2/281. somatostatin receptor scintigraphy of a patient with a giant invasive prolactinoma.

    A 41-year-old with a giant prolactinoma underwent in-111 pentetreotide (octreotide) imaging showing very intense tracer uptake in the region of the anterior skull base. In contrast, there was no significant response to octreotide therapy. Prediction of clinical responsiveness to octreotide therapy in patients with pituitary adenomas may depend on the presence of somatostatin receptor subtype 5. Pentetreotide does not avidly bind to this receptor subtype and therefore, cannot be used clinically to predict therapeutic octreotide responsiveness in patients with large prolactinomas. ( info)

3/281. prolactinoma manifesting with symptomatic hydrocephalus.

    Prolactinomas are the most common secretory adenomas of pituitary origin. They typically manifest with symptoms referable to their endocrinologic effects or, if of sufficient size, to visual changes due to compression of the optic chiasm. Pituitary adenomas manifesting with hydrocephalus are rare. To our knowledge, only three such cases have previously been reported. We describe an 81-year-old woman with a pituitary adenoma that manifested with hydrocephalus. In addition, we review the literature and discuss therapeutic options. ( info)

4/281. dexamethasone suppression test reversal in rapid transcranial magnetic stimulation-treated depression.

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to report the effect of rapid transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on the mood and dexamethasone suppression test (DST) of a patient with major depressive disorder (DSM-IV). CLINICAL PICTURE: A 36-year-old woman with a past history of prolactinoma and recurrent major depressive disorder presented with major depression on three separate occasions over a 3-month period. DST was positive on each occasion. TREATMENT: During each episode, a course of rTMS was given. Courses varied from seven to 13 once-daily treatment sessions depending on clinical response. These treatment sessions were 20 trains of 10 Hz for 5 s at 100% of motor threshold. OUTCOME: Remission was achieved, psychiatric rating scales improved and the DST status converted from positive to negative. There were no side effects. CONCLUSION: DST status in major depressive disorder can be converted from positive to negative by rTMS. This so far unreported observation increases our knowledge of rTMS. ( info)

5/281. growth hormone isoforms in a girl with gigantism.

    Several previous investigations have suggested that there may be different growth hormone isoforms in patients with acromegaly. We used three different site-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to investigate growth hormone (GH) isoforms in serum from an 8 year-old girl with a GH and prolactin secreting adenoma. The pattern of GH-immunoreactivity was dependent on the circumstances of collection. serum obtained after oral glucose had very little cross reactivity with MAb 352 although concentrations of up to 15 micrograms/l were found with two other MAbs, 033 and 665. MAb 352 does not recognize the 20,000 dalton isoform of GH (20K) while both MAb 033 and 665 do. The same pattern of GH immunoreactivity (low MAb 352, equal and higher MAb 033 and 665) was seen in other baseline samples. In contrast, samples obtained after TRH/GnRH showed immunoreactivity patterns expected for a mixture of 22,000 dalton isoform of GH (22K) with only a small amount of 20K. GH samples obtained during sleep showed both patterns with episodic peaks with equal immunoreactivity superimposed on the basal pattern (decreased activity with MAb 352). Affinity chromatography of basal samples showed that a portion of the GH immunoreactivity was neither 22K nor 20K, although in stimulated samples, over 70% of GH was 22K or 20K GH. In conclusion, the nature of GH isoforms present in serum varies with GH concentration. These differences may contribute to the known difficulty in correlating disease activity and random GH measurements in patients with GH secreting adenomas. ( info)

6/281. Triple pituitary adenoma in Cushing's disease: case report.

    A case of a triple pituitary adenoma identified in a surgically removed pituitary gland from a 52-year-old woman operated on for Cushing's disease is presented. The histology revealed 3 distinctly separate microadenomas, 1 corticotroph and 2 immunoreactive for prolactin (PRL). The latter were apparently silent, since the serum PRL levels were within normal range. The problems associated with the inability to identify multiple adenomas pre-operatively and the possible failure of selective transsphenoidal adenomectomy in case of multiple adenomas are emphasised. ( info)

7/281. Rapid enlargement and recurrence of a preexisting intrasellar craniopharyngioma during the course of two pregnancies. Case report.

    Enlargement of preexisting pituitary adenomas during pregnancy is well documented, but this phenomenon is unusual for nonendocrine pituitary tumors such as craniopharyngiomas. Only six cases of craniopharyngioma have been reported as presenting during pregnancy. The authors describe a 19-year-old woman who presented with amenorrhea and galactorrhea caused by an intrasellar mass. Seven months later, when she was 20 weeks pregnant, the patient developed sudden visual dysfunction. Emergency transsphenoidal surgery was performed to restore visual function, and the tumor was found to be a craniopharyngioma. The patient had spontaneous labor and delivered a healthy infant at term. The tumor recurred 4 years later, during her second pregnancy, and was again entirely removed via a second transsphenoidal approach. She again had a normal term delivery. During the 5-year follow-up period she has demonstrated no endocrinological or visual dysfunction. Control magnetic resonance images have revealed no recurrence of the tumor. The transsphenoidal approach seems to be the safest procedure to use during pregnancy to achieve an immediate optic nerve decompression and to preserve pituitary function. ( info)

8/281. A novel germline mutation of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) gene in a Japanese MEN1 patient and her daughter.

    Familial multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is an autosomal dominant inherited disorder characterized by tumors of the parathyroid, anterior pituitary and gastro-entero-pancreatic endocrine tissues. The MEN1 gene has recently been cloned and its germline mutations have been considered to play an important role in the tumorigenesis of MEN1. We analyzed a Japanese MEN1 patient and her daughter for germline mutations of the MEN1 gene. The proband (60 y.o.) had primary hyperparathyroidism (PHP) and gastrinoma, and her daughter (30 y.o.) had prolactinoma. Clinical examinations revealed no evidence of PHP in the daughter. We identified a novel heterozygous germline mutation (712 A del) at codon 201 in exon 3 of the MEN1 gene in the proband. Restriction digestion analysis revealed the same mutation pattern in her daughter. These findings suggest that this family has familial MEN1 including a rare case of MEN1 with a single lesion of the pituitary. Genetic examinations are useful as diagnostic tools for any rare or variant case of familial MEN1. ( info)

9/281. Pituitary adenoma with neuronal choristoma: a report of two rare cases.

    Two rare cases of pituitary adenoma with neuronal choristoma are described. Both patients were female and presented with features of acromegaly with elevated growth hormone and prolactin levels. Radiologically, both lesions were predominantly intrasellar in location with extension into suprasellar region, but hypothalamus was not involved. Histopathological examination revealed a mixture of chromophobe pituitary adenoma cells and neuronal cells. In both cases, the adenoma component was positive for growth hormone and prolactin. Interestingly, immunopositivity for alpha-subunit, cytokeratin and prolactin was seen in the adenoma and neuronal cells in one case. Our findings support the hypothesis that the neuronal cells possibly arise from adenoma cells as a result of metaplasia. ( info)

10/281. pituitary apoplexy following metastasis of bronchogenic adenocarcinoma to a prolactinoma.

    A 42-year-old house wife presented with worsening headaches over 6 months in the absence of visual symptoms or symptoms suggestive of focal neurology. She was a life-long smoker. Systems review was unremarkable apart from secondary amenorrhoea and galactorrhoea of 6 months duration. Her serum prolactin was found to be 620 mU/l (60-400), FT4 12.6 nmol/l (9.8-23.1), TSH 1.38 mU/l (0.35-5.5), oestradiol < 73 pmol/l, LH and FSH of 4.4 and 12.6 mIU/l, respectively. She was on bromocriptine. A presumptive diagnosis of pneumonia, based on pyrexia and CXR findings, was made and she was started on IV antibiotics. Two days later she developed meningism and deterioration of conscious level. (Lumbar puncture results: no organisms, 312 neutrophils and 164 lymphocytes). CT scan revealed a 2.5-cm pituitary adenoma, with suprasellar extension. A repeat hormonal profile revealed FSH 1.4, LH < 0.3 mU/l, oestradiol < 73 pmol/l, prolactin 488 mU/l (60-400), and low random cortisol at 29 nmol/l. T1-weighted MRI revealed a large pituitary mass with evidence of haemorrhage. The patient subsequently underwent a transsphenoidal exploration with resection of the pituitary lesion. Whilst awaiting the histopathology results, CT of chest revealed a 1. 5-cm diameter rounded well defined density in the right lower lobe associated with hilar, pre- and right para-tracheal lymphadenopathy. The histopathology of the pituitary lesion, obtained piecemeal, revealed fragments of fibrous tissue infiltrated by sheets of acidophilic prolactin-positive cells, in keeping with a prolactinoma. In addition, other fragments with blood clot included highly atypical epithelial cells with mitotic figures. These were negative for prolactin but showed HMFG-and CEA-positivity, excluding them from a pituitary lineage. Transbronchial biopsy revealed moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma, with evidence of lymphatic spread. The overall conclusion was of bronchogenic adenocarcinoma, metastasizing to a prolactinoma and complicated by apoplexy. ( info)
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