Cases reported "pseudotumor cerebri"

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1/475. pseudotumor cerebri and leukoencephalopathy in childhood lupus.

    We describe an adolescent with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and pseudotumor cerebri (PTC) associated with diffuse white matter lesions (leukoencephalopathy) on neuroimaging studies. Although the association between SLE and PTC has been reported previously in 21 cases, the findings of leukoencephalopathy is known in only one other patient. ( info)

2/475. Bilateral optic disk edema caused by sarcoidosis mimicking pseudotumor cerebri.

    PURPOSE: To present a case of retrobulbar optic nerve and chiasm sarcoidosis that mimicked pseudotumor cerebri. methods: A 34-year-old, thin, black woman presented with transient visual obscurations, normal visual acuity, bilateral optic disk edema, and enlarged blind spots. Clinical, medical, and radiologic evaluations were consistent with pseudotumor cerebri. The patient improved while taking acetazolamide, but 6 months later her symptoms worsened. neuroimaging disclosed enhancement of the optic nerve and chiasm. RESULTS: Despite administration of intravenous corticosteroids, the patient's vision worsened. Bilateral optic nerve sheath fenestrations were performed, and pathology disclosed sarcoidosis. CONCLUSION: sarcoidosis of the optic nerves and chiasm may mimic pseudotumor cerebri. ( info)

3/475. Fourth cranial nerve palsy in pediatric patients with pseudotumor cerebri.

    PURPOSE: To describe three children with acute fourth cranial nerve palsy secondary to pseudotumor cerebri. methods: We reviewed the medical records of children younger than 18 years who were diagnosed with pseudotumor cerebri between 1977 and 1997. pseudotumor cerebri was defined by normal neuro-imaging, elevated intracranial pressure measured by lumbar puncture, and normal cerebrospinal fluid composition. RESULTS: Three children with pseudotumor cerebri presented with vertical diplopia and clinical signs of fourth cranial nerve palsy including a hypertropia of the affected eye, which increased with adduction and ipsilateral head tilt. The fourth cranial nerve palsy resolved after reduction of the intracranial pressure in all three children. CONCLUSIONS: Fourth cranial nerve palsy may occur in children with pseudotumor cerebri and may be a nonspecific sign of elevated intracranial pressure. ( info)

4/475. Intracerebral pneumatocele: an unusual complication following intraventricular drainage in case of benign intracranial hypertension.

    The development of an intracerebral pneumatocele following ventricular catheterization for benign intracranial hypertension is described. The importance of skull radiography in the diagnosis of this previously unreported complication ist emphasized. This case demonstrates that air can accumulate without the need to implicate increased pharyngeal pressure, and despite raised intracranial pressure. ( info)

5/475. Raised intracranial pressure in minimal forms of craniosynostosis.

    Most cases of craniosynostosis are diagnosed during early infancy, but occasionally craniosynostosis evolves with minimal cranial involvement and goes unnoticed until late childhood. Seemingly these mild forms of craniosynostosis cause few, if any, symptoms of neurological involvement. We describe the cases of a 9-year-old girl and a 6-year-old boy who presented with evident signs of raised intracranial pressure (ICP), together with a negligible skull deformity. We have termed these cases as occult craniosynostosis. Differential diagnosis in our patients was established against known causes of benign intracranial hypertension. Bilateral expanding craniotomies afforded total relief from the symptoms and signs of raised ICP. Neurosurgeons treating children with symptoms and signs of benign intracranial hypertension should be aware of the possibility of minimal forms of craniosynostosis evolving with marked manifestations of raised ICP. ( info)

6/475. pseudotumor cerebri: an unusual complication of brachiocephalic vein thrombosis associated with hemodialysis catheters.

    We report a case of pseudotumor cerebri (PC) in a maintenance hemodialysis patient that was associated with thrombosis of the right and left brachiocephalic veins caused by repeated subclavian and jugular vein catheterizations. Symptoms and signs of PC appeared when a right forearm Gortex graft was inserted. PC secondary to intracranial venous outflow obstruction is an important diagnostic consideration for hemodialysis patients with headache, visual disturbance, and papilledema. ( info)

7/475. Atypical brachial plexopathy with pseudotumor cerebri.

    A 24-year-old woman with previously known pseudotumor cerebri syndrome (PTCS) presented with severe pain in the neck and shoulders followed by the classical symptoms and signs of bilateral brachial neuritis. At the same time, there was a recurrence of the PTCS which had been in remission for more than one-and-a-half years. Despite treatment with high doses of methylprednisolone, intravenous immunoglobulins and repeated cerebrospinal fluid drainage, both brachial plexopathy and the PTCS continued to worsen. Both lumbosacral plexuses became involved and the visual acuity deteriorated to a level such that a lumboperitoneal shunt had to be inserted. The neurological condition started to improve progressively after 8 weeks. This case is, to our knowledge, the first where brachial plexopathy has been described in association with a PTCS. Although the pathogenesis of this association is not clear, there are enough data to suggest the existence of a continuum between extended brachial plexopathy and Guillain Barre syndrome, with which PTCS has been associated in some instances. ( info)

8/475. Unilateral papilledema after bone marrow transplantation.

    We describe a patient who developed unilateral papilledema after allogeneic BMT. This is a rare manifestation of pseudotumor cerebri, which results from elevated intracranial pressure caused by cyclosporin A. The papilledema usually involves the fundi bilaterally, but unilateral involvement has been described. Congenital anomalies, compression and adhesion of the optic nerve sheath are its causes. In this patient, the right optic fundus was spared although leukemic infiltration was present on this side and high-dose irradiation (72 Gy) was given. Although papilledema is a sensitive marker of elevated intracranial pressure, this sign may be masked by constriction of the optic sheath in patients who suffer from leukemic infiltration of the central nervous system and receive high doses of cranial irradiation. ( info)

9/475. pseudotumor cerebri in children receiving recombinant human growth hormone.

    PURPOSE: This article represents the first report in the ophthalmology literature of an association between pseudotumor cerebri (PTC) and recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH). DESIGN: Noncomparative case series. PARTICIPANTS: Three children receiving rhGH for short stature with turner syndrome, Jeune syndrome, or down syndrome. methods: Children underwent full ocular examination. After papilledema was identified, patients underwent lumbar puncture and imaging with either magnetic resonance imaging or computerized tomography. Treatment was under the guidance of the primary physician or neurosurgeon. The rhGH was discontinued in all children. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: visual acuity and evaluation of the optic nerve for resolution of papilledema were followed at each examination. RESULTS: In all three cases, papilledema resolved with the cessation of rhGH, and treatment with acetazolamide or prednisone. visual acuity was unchanged in case 1, decreased by two to three lines in case 2, and was inconsistent in case 3. One child (case 2) required a ventriculoperitoneal shunt for persistent elevation of intracranial pressure. CONCLUSION: There appears to be a causal relationship between the initiation of rhGH with the development of PTC. Children should have a complete ophthalmic evaluation if they report headache or visual disturbances. Baseline examination with routine follow-up should be instituted when children cannot adequately communicate. ( info)

10/475. pseudotumor cerebri secondary to intermediate-dose cytarabine HCl.

    OBJECTIVE: To describe a case of pseudotumor cerebri associated with the administration of intermediate-dose cytarabine. CASE SUMMARY: An 11-year-old Hispanic boy with acute myeloblastic leukemia developed symptoms of pseudotumor cerebri (headache, diplopia, photophobia, nausea, vomiting) after receiving chemotherapy including cytarabine. The patient improved after a lumbar puncture and treatment with prednisone and acetazolamide, and is now asymptomatic. DISCUSSION: pseudotumor cerebri is a condition usually associated with obese women of child-bearing age. case reports in pediatric patients are unusual. Several medications have been implicated in causing pseudotumor cerebri, including antimicrobials (tetracycline, naladixic acid), amiodarone, lithium carbonate, vitamin a and its derivatives, growth hormone, and corticosteroids. Chemotherapy agents reported to cause pseudotumor cerebri include busulfan with cyclophosphamide, and the combination of vinblastine, cisplatin, and bleomycin. Most of the information on medication-induced pseudotumor cerebri is in the form of case reports. Different mechanisms for causing this condition have been offered for individual medications. Most of these explanations involve fluid imbalance or interference with the Na /K adenosine triphosphatase pump. Controlled studies are difficult because this condition is an unpredictable and rare occurrence. cytarabine has frequently been associated with neurologic toxicities, but few reports of pseudotumor cerebri can be found. CONCLUSIONS: The exact cause of pseudotumor cerebri in this patient is unknown, but cytarabine seems a likely cause. The mechanism by which cytarabine could cause this reaction is unclear. ( info)
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