Cases reported "Pulmonary Emphysema"

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1/397. Fragile lung in the marfan syndrome.

    Two cases of the marfan syndrome presented with spontaneous pneumothorax. Both had chest radiographs showing bilateral bullae in the upper lung zones and pulmonary function tests consistent with mild emphysema. There were dereases in forced expiratory flow rates at low lung volumes, carbon monoxide transfer factor, and lung elastic recoil. It is suggested that pneumothorax and bullous emphysema in this syndrome are caused by a weakness in the pulmonary connective tissue framework. ( info)

2/397. Unilateral lung volume reduction in preparation for contralateral pneumonectomy.

    A case of staged trans-sternal unilateral lung volume reduction (LVR) on the right followed by contralateral pneumonectomy for a locally advanced left lung malignancy is presented. The predicted symptomatic and functional benefit offered by LVR was felt to be necessary before the removal of the left lung. The patient, a 50-year-old male, with a history of chronic air flow limitation secondary to bullous emphysema, underwent a left pneumonectomy six weeks following a right LVR procedure for poor pulmonary function secondary to generalized emphysema. On admission, forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) was 1.37 L, 47% of predicted with an FEV1/forced vital capacity of 56%. Five weeks after the unilateral LVR, the patient's FEV1 was 1.85 L, and one year postdischarge from hospital, FEV1 was 0.9 L. One year after discharge, the patient did not require oxygen support, and was active and free of malignant disease. ( info)

3/397. Segmental bronchial atresia--a case report and a literature review.

    Bronchial atresia is a short and juxtahilar bronchus interruption. This uncommon malformation leads to an obstructive and systematized emphysema, often associated with mucoid impaction. The authors report the case of a 5-year-old boy and review the literature in order to recall the radiologic features of this affection, which are characterized by an obstructive segmental or lobar emphysema often located in the upper lobe. The modern imaging means are not necessary for diagnosis. bronchography confirms the atresia. Neonatal bronchial atresia appears as an opaque segment or lobe with retention of the alveolar liquid. ( info)

4/397. Spontaneous reduction in size of bullae (autobullectomy).

    The authors describe three patients with apical bullous disease that showed partial to near complete spontaneous regression over time. This phenomenon, termed autobullectomy, is a heretofore little known or recognized manifestation of a common pulmonary disease. ( info)

5/397. Ruptured hemidiaphragm after bilateral lung transplantation.

    A case of right hemidiaphragm rupture and abdominal herniation into the thorax occurring during the immediate post-operative course of double-lung transplantation is reported. This complication has not been reported previously. We examine the possible aetiology and suggest that the direct cause could be an increase in intra-abdominal pressure during chest physiotherapy. ( info)

6/397. A case of thoracoscopic bilateral lung volume reduction surgery in a supine position.

    We present a case of thoracoscopic bilateral lung volume reduction surgery performed with the patient in a supine position. By rotating the operative table, bilateral apical resection could be performed without difficulty. The duration of the operation was 160 minutes and the patient's forced expiratory volume in 1 second improved from 0.81 l to 2.49 l. ( info)

7/397. Lobar emphysema due to anomalous aortic origin of the left pulmonary artery.

    The unusual case of an infant with aortic origin of the left pulmonary artery is presented. The patient developed a rare complication of lobar emphysema due to bronchial compression from the enlarged right pulmonary artery. Operative anastomosis of the left pulmonary artery to the pulmonary trunk was successful, with subsequent resolution of the lobar emphysema. ( info)

8/397. The use of subcutaneous drains to manage subcutaneous emphysema.

    subcutaneous emphysema is a frequent complication of thoracic and cardiac surgical procedures, and emergency tracheostomy is often advocated as the treatment for this complication. However, we report the case of a patient in whom massive subcutaneous emphysema, which had developed after emergent replacement of the aortic root, was relieved using subcutaneous drains and suction, instead of a tracheostomy. We found that the subcutaneous drains provided effective decompression of the head and neck areas, and markedly reduced airway pressure and subcutaneous air. We recommend subcutaneous drains for safe, effective, and inexpensive management of massive subcutaneous emphysema. ( info)

9/397. Wegener's granulomatosis and alpha1-antitrypsin-deficiency emphysema: proteinase-related diseases.

    Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) and alpha1-antitrypsin (alpha1-AT)-deficiency emphysema are both uncommon disorders. A relationship may exist between these diseases involving the proteinase and antiproteinase balance in the lung. A case is presented of WG and alpha1-AT-deficiency emphysema occurring in the same patient. Previous studies concerning the correlation between abnormal alpha1-AT alleles and WG are discussed. Potential mechanisms for the relationship and recommendations for screening are given. ( info)

10/397. Demonstration of communication between alveolus and interstitium in persistent interstitial pulmonary emphysema: case report.

    Persistent interstitial pulmonary emphysema (PIPE) is an uncommon complication of premature infants suffering from hyaline membrane disease who have been treated with mechanical ventilation. The presumed mechanism for the development of the disease is via a break in the bronchioalveolar system that allows air to escape into the interstitium. We report a case of a 9-week-old child who developed the localized form of the disease and underwent a lobectomy. Immunohistochemical stains helped to demonstrate the communication between the airway system and interstitium. This report strengthens the theory that the disease develops from airway rupture at the alveolar level. ( info)
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