Cases reported "Quadriplegia"

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1/1025. Parenchymatous cerebral neurocysticercosis in a quadriplegic patient.

    OBJECTIVE: To present and discuss a case of cerebral neurocysticercosis in a quadriplegic patient. DESIGN: Case report of a case of neurocysticercosis in a high level spinal cord injury (SCI) patient who developed episodes of autonomic dysreflexia and orthostatic hypotension associated with transient neurologic deficits and seizures. SETTING: spinal cord Unit of the University Hospital of Geneva, switzerland. SUBJECT: Single patient case report. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Clinical and radiological magnetic resonance imaging follow-up of the patient between July 1995 and October 1997. RESULTS: Treatment of cysticercosis with praziquantel relieved the patient from autonomic dysreflexia, symptomatic orthostatic hypotension, transitory neurological deficits and seizures. CONCLUSION: diagnosis of neurocysticercosis in a quadriplegic patient might be difficult because of frequent overlaps with some usual symptoms occurring in high level SCI, mostly autonomic dysreflexia and orthostatic hypotension. neurocysticercosis should be kept in mind when a SCI patient living in, or coming from endemic zones presents with new neurological abnormalities and seizures. magnetic resonance imaging appears to be more sensitive than computerised tomography to confirm the diagnosis of active cysticercosis. Treatment with praziquantel associated with cimetidine to increase the drug bioavailability and prednisone to reduce the inflammatory reaction gives good results. ( info)

2/1025. Endovascular stenting of an acutely thrombosed basilar artery: technical case report and review of the literature.

    OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: The goal of this report was to describe the successful percutaneous endovascular use of a Gianturco-Roubin-2 coronary stent in the treatment of an acute atherothrombotic occlusion of the basilar artery. To our knowledge, the percutaneous endovascular deployment of an intra-arterial stent for the treatment of an acute atherothrombotic occlusion of the basilar artery and the percutaneous endovascular placement of a Gianturco-Roubin-2 stent in the basilar artery have not been previously reported. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: An 83-year-old man presented with a recurrent, transient, locked-in syndrome resulting from a lower basilar artery occlusion caused by vertebrobasilar thrombosis superimposed on severe proximal basilar artery atheromatous stenosis. INTERVENTION: After successful superselective intra-arterial thrombolysis of the vertebrobasilar clot, balloon angioplasty of the underlying basilar artery stenosis was performed, without significant angiographic improvement. Percutaneous endovascular deployment of a Gianturco-Roubin-2 coronary stent of 4-mm diameter was subsequently performed, with excellent angiographic results. CONCLUSION: The patient made a very good neurological recovery but unfortunately died as a result of cardiogenic shock and sepsis. Detailed neuropathological follow-up results are presented; stent patency was revealed in the postmortem examination. The anatomic and pathophysiological considerations of basilar artery stent placement for the treatment of acute basilar artery occlusion related to atherosclerotic stenosis are discussed. ( info)

3/1025. 3-Methylglutaconic aciduria type I: clinical heterogeneity as a neurometabolic disease.

    3-Methylglutaconic (3-MGC) aciduria with 3-methylglutaconyl-CoA hydratase deficiency (3-MGC aciduria type I) is a rare inherited metabolic disease of L-leucine catabolism. We describe a 9-month-old Japanese boy with this disorder who showed progressive neurological impairments presented as quadriplegia, athetoid movements and severe psychomotor retardation from 4 months of age. This finding indicates the existence of clinical heterogeneity in 3-MGC aciduria type I, suggesting it may present as a neurometabolic disease. ( info)

4/1025. Antidepressant exacerbation of spasticity.

    patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) may develop depression. This may be related to adjustment to living with an SCI in addition to dealing with complications of the injury, such as spasticity. Pharmacologic treatment of depression can be difficult because of neurochemical and receptor changes that are associated with SCI. Newer antidepressant agents are purported to have selective activity by alteration of serotonergic neurotransmission. A case report is presented that illustrates exacerbation of spasticity by this family of antidepressant medications. Mechanisms possibly explaining this exacerbation of spasticity are the effects of serotonin on motor neuron and reflex activity, denervation supersensitivity, and the serotonin syndrome. Understanding the relationship between serotonergic systems and spasticity can be important in treating depression in patients with spasticity. ( info)

5/1025. Using seat contour measurements during seating evaluations of individuals with SCI.

    Measuring the shape of the buttock-cushion interface has been used successfully in research to study tissue loading and as a means to fabricate custom contoured cushions. Seat contours are also able to provide useful clinical information on the weight-bearing surface of the cushion, which can be used to address posture. This article offers specific case studies that demonstrate how the analysis of seat contours can be used to identify pelvic tilt, pelvic obliquity, and areas of high loading. Seat contour measurements complement other clinical measures, such as seat interface pressures and general postural assessments, to form a more complete picture of the buttock-cushion interface. They have become useful in the clinical management of various pressure and posture problems experienced by individuals with spinal cord injury and other wheelchair users. ( info)

6/1025. Restoration of strong grasp and lateral pinch in tetraplegia due to cervical spinal cord injury.

    patients with tetraplegia who have "strong" sixth cervical neurologic (C-6) function often can be given active grasp and strong lateral pinch by tendon transfers and tenodeses. wrist control can be retained by the extensor carpi radialis brevis and flexor carpi radialis and can permit transfer of the extensor carpi radialis longus to provide finger flexion. Either the brachioradialis or pronator teres then is available for transfer to restore adduction-opposition of the thumb with an in situ tendon graft of a paralyzed flexor superficialis rerouted to the thumb through a palmar fascial pulley. The other motor can provide thumb flexion for strong lateral pinch. Extrinsic extension can be provided by tendoeses. With seventh cervical neurologic (C-7) function retained, active digital extension is present and functional expectations are better. Ten hands in seven patients with traumatic tetraplegia from injuries at C-6 or C-7 level have been reconstructed. The average grasp and pinch force after operation was 5.5 and 3.0 Kg., respectively. All patients but one were pleased with the increased function a ( info)

7/1025. Use of breath-activated Patient Controlled analgesia for acute pain management in a patient with quadriplegia.

    We report the use of breath-activated Patient Controlled analgesia (PCA) for the provision of analgesia in a quadriplegic patient with traumatic neck injury. This provided good pain relief, decreased opioid complications, improved perceptions of self-control, smoothed recovery and enhanced patient, family as well as staff satisfaction. The setup and principles of its use in a patient with high anxiety and unable to use conventionally activated PCA are illustrated. ( info)

8/1025. pathology of the spinal cord damaged by ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament associated with spinal cord injury.

    A 63-year-old male became quadriplegic after spinal injury associated with ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament of the cervical spine and died 4 years later. A postmortem examination of the cervical spinal cord showed various unfavorable pathological changes accounting for severe myelopathy. ( info)

9/1025. Acute quadriplegic myopathy following autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation for breast cancer.

    Autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (APSCT) is increasingly used in the treatment of breast cancer. We report a patient who experienced septic shock, and after treatment with antibiotics, high-dose corticosteroids and mechanical ventilation due to respiratory insufficiency, developed quadriplegia. Electroneurophysiological examination, as well as a muscle biopsy, showed a typical picture of acute quadriplegic myopathy with loss of thick filament proteins. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first reported case of this complication following APSCT. ( info)

10/1025. Primary polyarteritis nodosa presenting as acute symmetric quadriplegia.

    We report a case of peripheral neuropathy presenting as acute symmetric areflexic quadriplegia in the setting of a well-defined clinical, histopathologic, and angiographic diagnosis of classic polyarteritis nodosa. While it is usually easy to recognize the typical clinical presentation of necrotizing angiopathy-induced peripheral neuropathy as a mononeuritis multiplex or a distal polyneuropathy in association with a collagen vascular disease, clinicians must be equally sensitive to a number of more challenging possibilities. Acute quadriplegia similar to that seen in guillain-barre syndrome can be secondary to primary classic polyarteritis nodosa and the former may be the chief or even the sole manifestation of the latter. ( info)
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