Cases reported "reperfusion injury"

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1/50. Abdominal aortic aneurysm repair in patients with renal allografts.

    Aortic reconstruction is being reported in an increasing number of patients after renal transplantation as a result of improved renal graft survival and life expectancy. Aortic surgery in these patients places the pelvic allograft at risk for ischemic damage. We present two separate modalities that have been successfully used in protecting the renal transplant from prolonged warm ischemia during abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair in two cases. One technique involves an aortofemoral shunt using the perirenal aorta for proximal cannulation and the other technique utilizes an indwelling shunt through the prosthetic graft. Both patients had an uneventful recovery with no evidence of renal dysfunction and their renal function has been stable on long-term follow-up. These cases illustrate two useful alternatives in providing pulsatile perfusion to a transplanted kidney in the iliac fossa during AAA repair. They have been used successfully as simpler alternatives to temporary axillofemoral bypass or extracorporeal pump oxygenation in preventing postoperative renal dysfunction. ( info)

2/50. Nonspecific ulcerated jejunitis as an unusual complication of laparoscopic cholecystectomy: report of a case.

    We describe herein the case of a 65-year-old man in whom a lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage developed a few days after he underwent an elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. A laparotomy was performed on postoperative day 16 and a jejunal segment containing mucosal changes and oozing ulcers was resected. Pathologic examination of the specimen revealed "nonspecific ulcerated jejunitis." There is no explanation for the etiopathogenesis of this pathology; however, we concluded that this clinical picture may be attributed to ischemia-reperfusion injury that occurred following an ischemic period caused by the pneumoperitoneum during laparoscopic surgery. ( info)

3/50. Femoral venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for severe reimplantation response after lung transplantation.

    Severe pulmonary reimplantation response after lung transplantation is not very common, although the mortality can be high. We present a patient who developed an extremely severe reperfusion injury after bilateral lung transplantation. Because of severe hypoxia and hemodynamic instability, despite aggressive ventilator settings, venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) was instituted using the femoral approach at the bedside. During ECMO, the patient developed a thoracic wall hematoma that was treated with transfusion alone. After 50 h of ECMO, his chest radiograph had dramatically improved, his oxygen need had been reduced to 50%, and he was successfully weaned from ECMO. Two years later, he is doing extremely well. Therefore, institution of ECMO using the femoral approach can be performed safely at the bedside in the ICU, and can be lifesaving in the context of a very severe reimplantation response after lung transplantation. ( info)

4/50. Hypotensive hemorrhagic necrosis in basal ganglia and brainstem.

    Hypotensive hemorrhagic necrosis of the basal ganglia and brainstem has only occasionally been described. Three such cases are reported. Cardiac arrest had occurred in all cases, and it took at least 1 hour to restore adequate circulation. The patients remained comatose for 2 days to 2 weeks until death. Persistent hypotension causing ischemia in the distribution of deep perforating arteries is considered to have been the key underlying mechanism. Hemorrhage is thought to have been caused by extravasation of red blood cells through damaged blood vessels. ( info)

5/50. An unexpected cause of muscle pain in diabetes.

    Diabetic muscle infarction is a rare condition which may present to a rheumatologist. It was first reported in 1965. Two illustrative cases are described here and the mechanisms of pathogenesis discussed. Analysis of the published data, results of the muscle biopsies, and a technetium-99m sestamibi scan suggest that the condition, which occurs against a background of diabetic microangiopathy, can be triggered by an ischaemic event and causes extensive muscle necrosis through hypoxia-reperfusion injury and compartment syndrome. ( info)

6/50. Reperfusion pulmonary edema after pulmonary endarterectomy.

    pulmonary artery thromboendarterectomy is a potentially curative procedure in chronic, major vessel thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. However, persistent pulmonary hypertension and unrelenting reperfusion edema have serious complications, often requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation. A 50-year-old man who was diagnosed with a thromboembolism in both pulmonary arteries underwent a bilateral pulmonary endarterectomy. He received O2-isoflurane-fentanyl anesthesia. When the lungs were reperfused with CPB weaning, massive hemorrhage occurred in the left lung. After the operation, the patient was taken to the intensive care unit. Mechanical ventilation was performed immediately and then both inhaled NO and i.v. furosemide therapies were administered. The patient was discharged from ICU 15 days postoperation. ( info)

7/50. Intracardiac thrombus formation and pulmonary thromboembolism immediately after graft reperfusion in 7 patients undergoing liver transplantation.

    Intravascular and/or intracardiac thrombus formation followed by pulmonary thromboembolism with right ventricular dysfunction immediately after graft reperfusion during orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) is described in 7 patients. This complication may have been related to excessive activation of the coagulation system by graft reperfusion, which overwhelmed anticoagulation mechanisms and was disproportionate to fibrinolysis. Activation of the coagulation system may be more pronounced in patients who receive less than optimal grafts, require massive transfusion, or have septic complications at the time of OLT. It is unclear whether antifibrinolytic therapy during the anhepatic stage had a role. Transesophageal echocardiography was useful in diagnosing and managing intracardiac thrombus and pulmonary thromboembolism. ( info)

8/50. Skeletal muscle reperfusion injury: reversal by controlled limb reperfusion--a case report.

    Despite successful surgical revascularization of ischemic limbs, a local and systemic reperfusion injury may occur after normal blood reperfusion. Recent experimental and clinical application of controlled limb reperfusion in europe has demonstrated superior results, with lower morbidity and mortality. This new surgical technique includes modification of the reperfusate (calcium, pH, substrates, osmolarity, free radical scavenger) and the circumstances of initial reperfusion (time, temperature, pressure). This report describes the first application of controlled limb reperfusion after reperfusion injury. A 16-year-old boy underwent femoral access cardiopulmonary bypass for repeat cardiac repair with an ischemic time of 245 minutes. Postoperatively, severe ischemia/reperfusion syndrome developed with muscle contracture, immobility, and anesthesia of the right leg with a second ischemic time of about 6 hours. The systemic creatine phosphokinase level was 88,000 U/L; myoglobin was 27,000 ng/mL. He underwent controlled limb reperfusion by withdrawing blood from the aorta and mixing it with a crystalloid solution (calcium-reduced, hyperosmolar, hyperglycemic, alkalotic, glutamate- and aspartate-enriched, and containing a free radical scavenger) under controlled conditions (blood:crystalloid solution 6:1, for 30 minutes, reperfusion pressure < 50 mm Hg, and normothermia) before establishing normal blood reperfusion. Metabolic data from the central and femoral vein demonstrated a significant reduction of all previous elevated enzyme levels, avoidance of hyperkalemia, normalization of acidosis, and avoidance of systemic reperfusion injury with no multiorgan failure. limb salvage was accomplished and functional recovery almost complete. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first application of controlled limb reperfusion reported in north america. With this surgical technique we were able to prevent metabolic local and systemic reperfusion changes after prolonged ischemia and also reduced previous reperfusion changes. This report confirms former experimental data, and further clinical studies are warranted. ( info)

9/50. Systemic reperfusion injury during arm replantation requiring intraoperative amputation.

    This case describes the attempted replantation of an arm following its traumatic amputation. After a five-and-a-half hour ischaemic time, perfusion of the arm was re-established. However over the ensuing hours, the patient developed hyperkalaemia, acidaemia and severe hypotension requiting high dose inotropic support. Ultimately re-amputation was necessary to treat the systemic effects of the ischaemia reperfusion syndrome. ( info)

10/50. Multiple stenting in takayasu arteritis.

    PURPOSE: To illustrate the possible peri- and postprocedural complications of stent treatment for takayasu arteritis and suggest ways of reducing these risks. CASE REPORT: A 69-year-old woman with takayasu arteritis had multiple stents implanted in the aortic arch (3 Memotherm) and main branches of the thoracic aorta (individual Corinthian stents in the subclavian and brachiocephalic arteries) following balloon dilation. She suffered reperfusion injury with cerebral hemorrhage following the procedure, preventing the use of anticoagulation or antiplatelet therapy. Further cerebral infarctions/hemorrhages over the ensuing months led to her death. CONCLUSIONS: Severe vascular disease of any cause confers a poor prognosis. Endovascular stenting may seem an attractive option for management of these patients, but there is often significant morbidity and mortality associated with the underlying disease as well as the stent. ( info)
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